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Dias P.T.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Hahn J.A.,San Francisco General Hospital | Delwart E.,Blood Systems Research Institute | Edlin B.,Clarkson College | And 8 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) has become an important measure in the diagnosis and monitoring of HCV infection treatment. In the United States (U.S.) HCV GT 1 is reported as the most common infecting GT among chronically infected patients. In Europe, however, recent studies have suggested that the epidemiology of HCV GTs is changing.Methods: We assessed HCV GT distribution in 460 patients from three HCV-infected high risk populations in San Francisco, and examined patterns by birth cohort to assess temporal trends. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess factors independently associated with GT 1 infection compared to other GTs (2, 3, and 4).Results: Overall, GT 1 was predominant (72.4%), however younger injection drug users (IDU) had a lower proportion of GT 1 infections (54.7%) compared to older IDU and HIV-infected patients (80.5% and 76.6%, respectively). Analysis by birth cohort showed increasing proportions of non-GT 1 infections associated with year of birth: birth before 1970 was independently associated with higher adjusted odds of GT 1: AOR 2.03 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.34). African-Americans as compared to whites also had higher adjusted odds of GT 1 infection (AOR: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.89, 5.99).Conclusions: Although, HCV GT 1 remains the most prevalent GT, especially among older groups, changes in GT distribution could have significant implications for how HCV might be controlled on a population level and treated on an individual level. © 2011 Dias et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Rolle I.V.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Beasley D.D.,Emory University | Kennedy S.M.,Research Triangle Institute RTI | Rock V.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Neff L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2016

Introduction: Beginning in the 1970s, US national surveys showed African American youth having a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth. Yet, during adulthood, African Americans have a smoking prevalence comparable to white adults. Data sources chosen can contribute in different ways to understanding tobacco use behaviors among African American youth and adults; this article is a review of national and/or state-based health surveys to examine their methodology, racial and ethnic classifications, and tobacco-use related measures. Methods: Eleven national and/or state based surveys were selected for review. Eight surveys were multitopic and included questions on tobacco use and three surveys were tobacco specific. Survey methods included telephone (4), household (3), and school (4). Three major characteristics examined for each survey were: (1) survey design and methods, (2) racial and ethnic background classification, and (3) selected tobacco smoking questions. Within these three characteristics, 15 factors considered to be important for examining tobacco use behaviors by African Americans were identified a priori using previously published reviews and studies. Results: Within survey design and methods, the majority of surveys (=7) oversampled African Americans and did not use proxy respondents for tobacco questions. All surveys used Office of Management and Budget standard classification for race/ethnicity classification. The majority of surveys (=7) captured five of the seven tobacco-related smoking questions. Conclusions: Programmatic objectives and/or research questions should guide the selection of data sources for tobacco control programs and researchers examining African American tobacco use behaviors. Implications: This review of 11 national and state tobacco-related surveys shows that these surveys provide much needed estimates of tobacco use behaviors. However, as tobacco programs and researchers seek to examine tobacco use behaviors among African Americans, it is important to consider multiple surveys as each can contribute to informing the tobacco experience in African Americans. Most importantly, programmatic objectives and/or research questions should guide the selection of data sources for tobacco control programs and researchers examining African American tobacco use behaviors.

Mai C.T.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Petersen E.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Petersen E.E.,Ohio State University | Miller A.,Research Triangle Institute RTI
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: 'Birth defect' is a common phrase, yet concerns have been expressed that the word 'defect' carries a negative connotation. Our objective was to examine public perceptions of terms used to refer to birth defects. METHODS: Four questions about terminology of birth defects were included in the U.S. nationally representative 2007 HealthStyles survey. Respondents answered questions about whether they or a family member were affected by birth defects (condition status), and which terms used to refer to birth defects they found preferable and which offensive. We further examined whether condition status, race/ethnicity, gender, income, geographical region, and education level impacted respondents' term selection. Chi-square tests and multinomial logistic regression were performed using SAS 9.1. RESULTS: 'Birth defects' was most frequently selected as the first choice preferred term (35.4%), followed by 21.9% who selected 'children with special needs. ' For respondents who said they themselves or a family member were affected by birth defects (11.5%), their responses differed statistically (p ≤ 0.0001) from nonaffected respondents, but the leading choices were still 'birth defects' (28.5%) and 'children with special needs' (27.2%). Condition status, race/ethnicity, gender, income, and education level were all significant predictors of the respondents' choice of a preferred term. When asked which phrases might be offensive, the top choices were 'none of the phrases listed' (37.0%), 'adverse pregnancy outcomes' (23.1%), and 'birth defects' (21.4%). CONCLUSIONS: 'Birth defect' was the preferred term; however, survey participants affected by birth defects responded less positively to the term. Continued dialogue about accepted and appropriate terminology is necessary. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Beer N.,Karolinska Institutet | Ali A.S.,Zanzibar Malaria Control Programme ZMCP | De Savigny D.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | De Savigny D.,University of Basel | And 7 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2010

Background. Insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and long-lasting insecticidal treated nets (LLIN) are important means of malaria prevention. Although there is consensus regarding their importance, there is uncertainty as to which delivery strategies are optimal for dispensing these life saving interventions. A targeted mass distribution of free LLINs to children under five and pregnant women was implemented in Zanzibar between August 2005 and January 2006. The outcomes of this distribution among children under five were evaluated, four to nine months after implementation. Methods. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in May 2006 in two districts of Zanzibar: Micheweni (MI) on Pemba Island and North A (NA) on Unguja Island. Household interviews were conducted with 509 caretakers of under-five children, who were surveyed for socio-economic status, the net distribution process, perceptions and use of bed nets. Each step in the distribution process was assessed in all children one to five years of age for unconditional and conditional proportion of success. System effectiveness (the accumulated proportion of success) and equity effectiveness were calculated, and predictors for LLIN use were identified. Results. The overall proportion of children under five sleeping under any type of treated net was 83.7% (318/380) in MI and 91.8% (357/389) in NA. The LLIN usage was 56.8% (216/380) in MI and 86.9% (338/389) in NA. Overall system effectiveness was 49% in MI and 87% in NA, and equity was found in the distribution scale-up in NA. In both districts, the predicting factor of a child sleeping under an LLIN was caretakers thinking that LLINs are better than conventional nets (OR = 2.8, p = 0.005 in MI and 2.5, p = 0.041 in NA), in addition to receiving an LLIN (OR = 4.9, p < 0.001 in MI and in OR = 30.1, p = 0.001 in NA). Conclusions. Targeted free mass distribution of LLINs can result in high and equitable bed net coverage among children under five. However, in order to sustain high effective coverage, there is need for complimentary distribution strategies between mass distribution campaigns. Considering the community's preferences prior to a mass distribution and addressing the communities concerns through information, education and communication, may improve the LLIN usage. © 2010 Beer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Becker R.A.,American Chemistry Council | Bergfelt D.R.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Borghoff S.,Integrated Laboratory Systems, Inc. | Davis J.P.,Integrated Laboratory Systems, Inc. | And 7 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part B - Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology | Year: 2012

Validation of the 15-day intact adult male rat screening assay (IAMRSA), an endocrine activity screen, was extended beyond the 28 substances evaluated to date. Two independent laboratories evaluated specificity using allyl alcohol (AA), a putative negative control, and DE-71 (technical grade pentabromodiphenyl ether) for comparison with previous pubertal assays that demonstrated thyroid effects. Male rats (15/group) were gavaged daily with AA (0, 10, 30, or 40 mg/kg/day) or DE-71 (0, 3, 30, or 60 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Body and organ weights and serum hormone concentrations were measured, and a limited histopathological assessment was conducted. AA results were considered negative at doses that did not exceed the maximum tolerated dose (MTD); effects reported were dose-related decreases in weight gain, increased liver weights and, although the pattern varied across studies, alterations in some androgen-sensitive endpoints in the high-dose where the maximum tolerated dose was exceeded. In the DE-71 studies, dose-dependent increases in liver weights (consistent with hepatic enzyme induction), decreases in tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine, concomitant thyroid stimulating hormone increases were observed and one laboratory reported histopathological thyroid changes in mid- and high-dose groups, and the other increased thyroid weights. For DE-71, the IAMRSA was comparable in sensitivity to the pubertal assays. Overall, the specificity and sensitivity of the IAMRSA for deployment in an endocrine screening battery are supported. However, differentiating primary endocrine-mediated effects from secondary effects caused by systemic toxicity will be challenging, emphasizing the need to utilize a battery of assays and a weight of evidence approach when evaluating the potential endocrine activity of chemicals. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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