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Sharifi A.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sharifi A.M.,Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center | Mousavi S.H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mousavi S.H.,Medical Toxicology Research Center | Jorjani M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2010

Despite reduction in environmental lead, chronic lead exposure still possess a public health hazard, particularly in children, with devastating effects on developing CNS. To investigate the mechanism of this neurotoxicity, young and adult rats were used to study whether exposure to 500 ppm concentrations of lead could induce apoptosis in hippocampus. 2-4 and 12-14-week-old rats received lead acetate in concentration of 500 ppm for 40 days. Control animals received deionized distilled water. In lead-treated groups, the blood lead levels were increased by 3-4 folds. Light and electron microscopical study of hippocampus revealed increased apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis of Bax and Bcl-2 (pro-and antiapoptotic gene products, respectively) indicated higher expression of Bax protein and no significant change in bcl-2 expression and accordingly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio compared to control group, confirming the histological study. In conclusion, these data suggest that neurotoxicity of chronic lead exposure in hippocampus in vivo may partly be due to facilitation of apoptosis. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source


Mohajeri S.A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Karimi G.,Medical Toxicology Research Center | Khansari M.R.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

A variety of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) against clozapine (CLZ) were synthesized and their recognition properties were compared with blank non-imprinted polymers. Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as a functional monomer and Chloroform or tetrahydrofuran (THF) were applied as polymerization solvents. Chloroform as the solvent and MAA/CLZ ratio of 5 was selected as optimized polymerization condition. In Scatchard analysis of MIP-CLZ interactions, two classes of binding sites were found in MIP-high affinity (KD = 14.5 μM) and low affinity (KD = 322.5 μM) binding sites. The polymer was evaluated as a selective sorbent in molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of CLZ from human serum. The MISPE procedure was developed and optimized with a recovery of 88-102%. The intra- and inter-day precision values were less than 1.36% and 2.5%, respectively. The selectivity of MISPE for CLZ was studied in comparison with some drugs. These drugs could be present with CLZ, simultaneously in serum of patients. The data indicated that the imprinted polymer had a good selectivity and affinity for CLZ and could be used for selective extraction and analysis of CLZ in human serum. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Maleki M.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Karimi G.,Medical Toxicology Research Center | Tafaghodi M.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Raftari S.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Nahidi Y.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2012

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in developing countries caused by different species of leishmania parasite, and if left untreated, it will result in a deformed scar after a relatively long period. Although various systemic and topical treatments have been proposed for leishmaniasis, pentavalent Antimony compounds remain the first-line treatment for it. Considering the cases with treatment failure, potential side effects and reluctance of patients to receive the drug, there are continuing efforts to find better treatment alternatives. Aim: Comparison of the effect of intralesional 2% zinc sulfate injection with Glucantime in treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 45 patients with clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and positive direct smear for leishman body were treated by intralesional injection of either 2% zinc sulfate or Glucantime. After simple randomization, in one group the patients were treated with 2 bouts of intralesional 2% zinc sulfate with a 2-week interval, and in the other group they were treated with 6 weekly bouts of intralesional Glucantime. The patients were monitored in two week intervals for 8 weeks. Healing of the lesions was evaluated clinically and by direct smear, and the data were analyzed using SPSS (11.5) software, t-Student, Mann-Whitney and Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) statistical tests. Findings: In the end of study, 34 patients completed the study, 10 of whom received intralesional Glucantime and 24 of whom received intralesional 2% zinc sulfate. The healing rate after 8 weeks was 80% in the group receiving intralesional Glucantime and 33.3% in the one receiving 2% zinc sulfate (P=0.009). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, intralesional injection of 2% zinc sulfate was less effective in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis than intralesional Glucantime. Source


Layegh P.,Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Research Center | Maleki M.,Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Research Center | Mousavi S.R.,Medical Toxicology Research Center | Momenzadeh A.,Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | Year: 2015

Despite almost the three decades passed since the chemical attacks of Iraqi’s army against the Iranian troops, some veterans are still suffering from long-term complications of sulfur mustard (SM) poisoning, including certain skin complaints specially dryness, burning, and pruritus. We thus aimed to evaluate the skin’s water and lipid content in patients with a disability of >25% due to complications of SM poisoning and compare them with a matched control group. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine male participants were included in this study; 43 SM-exposed patients, and 26 normal controls from their close relatives. The water and lipid content was measured in four different locations: Extensor and flexor sides of forearms and lateral and medial sides of legs by the Corneometer CM 820/Sebumeter SM 810. Collected data was analyzed and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the patients and controls was 49.53 ± 11.34 (ranges: 40-71) and 29.08 ± 8.836 (ranges: 15-49 years), respectively. In the veterans group, the main cutaneous complaint was itching and skin dryness. Cherry angioma, dry skin, and pruritus were significantly more common in the SM-exposed cases than in the controls. (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04, respectively). The moisture and lipid content of all areas were lower in the SM-exposed group, but it was only significant in skin sebum of lateral sides of legs (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Exposure to SM could decrease the function of stratum corneum and lipid production as a barrier, even after several years of its exposure. © 2015 Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. Source


Riahi B.,Medical Toxicology Research Center | Rafatpanah H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Mahmoudi M.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Memar B.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

The immunotoxic effect of paraquat (PQ), a herbicide that has been used widely in agriculture was investigated using Balb/c mice. Paraquat was administered at doses of 1, 0.1, and 0.01. mg/kg for 21. days. Body weight, organ weight, cellularity of spleen, delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) response, plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay, hemagglutination titer (HA), quantitative hemolysis of SRBC (QHS) assay, spleen cell subtypes, cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation assay were studied in various groups of animals. Results showed that high dose of PQ (1. mg/kg) could suppress both cellular and humoral activity of the immune system. PQ at medium dose (0.1. mg/kg) did not show any changes in organ weight, body weight and spleen cellularity but significantly decreased the proliferation response to PHA and the production of IFNγ. PQ at low dose (0.01. mg/kg) did not produce any significant changes in humoral or cellular responses of the immune system. In conclusion, paraquat at high dose has an inhibitory effect on the cell-mediated and humoral immunity. It seems that PQ has no adverse effects on mice immune system at low doses of 0.01. mg/kg, which is two times the PQ allowed daily intake (ADI) limit. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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