Perotti A.L.,Phoenix College |
Lam K.C.,Research Support Instruments, Inc. |
Bay R.C.,A.T. Still University
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation | Year: 2010
Context: Electrical stimulation is often used to control edema formation after acute injury. However, it is unknown whether its theoretical benefits translate to benefits in clinical practice. Objectives: To systematically review the basic-science literature regarding the effects of high-voltage pulsed stimulation (HVPS) for edema control. Evidence Acquisition: CINAHL (1982 to February 2010), PubMed (1966 to February 2010), Medline (1966 to February 2010), and SPORTDiscus (1980 to February 2010) databases were searched for relevant studies using the following keywordsedema, electrical stimulation, high-volt electrical stimulation, and combinations of these terms. Reference sections of relevant studies were hand-searched. Included studies investigated HVPS and its effect on acute edema formation and included outcome measures specific to edema. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality and level of evidence were assessed for each included study. Effect sizes were calculated for primary edema outcomes. Evidence Synthesis: Studies were critiqued by electrical stimulation treatment parameters: mode of stimulation, polarity, frequency, duration of treatment, voltage, intensity, number of treatments, and overall time of treatments. The available evidence indicates that HVPS administered using negative polarity, pulse frequency of 120 pulses/s, and intensity of 90% visual motor contraction may be effective at curbing edema formation. In addition, the evidence suggests that treatment should be administered in either four 30-min treatment sessions (30-min treatment, 30-min rest cycle for 4 h) or a single, continuous180-min session to achieve the edemasuppressing effects. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the basic-science literature provides a general list of treatment parameters that have been shown to successfully manage the formation of edema after acute injury in animal subjects. These treatment parameters may facilitate future research related to the effects of HVPS on edema formation in humans and guide practical clinical use. © 2010 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.97K | Year: 2010
Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes the Gyroscopic Inertial Micro-Balance Azimuth Locator (GIMBAL) program to use an innovative encapsulated spinning wheel micro-gyroscope as a Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) actuator for small spacecraft use. While macro-size gyroscopes, including fiber ring gyros, have achieved navigation-grade performance, Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyros have been limited to rate-grade performance, particularly in long-term bias drift. This is often attributable to quadrature error, which is a result of cross-coupling between drive and sense axes (Yazdi 1998). GIMBAL is particularly suited to addressing this, since it does not rely on the vibratory structure common in MEMS gyros. Instead, it uses a true spinning wheel for the proof mass, which will not have any mechanical linkages between axes. This will result in a bias drift much smaller than encountered in current MEMS-sized gyros. The Phase I GIMBAL program will involve design, fabrication, and test of the key encapsulated micro-gyro technology as well as system design of the GN&C component. In Phase II, the complete gyro sensor will be designed and built, and detailed tests and demonstrations will resolve design issues for the final design. The result will be a GN&C component that will address a critical need in future NASA science missions.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.93K | Year: 2010
Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes the Gyroscopic Inertial Micro-Balance Attitude Locator (GIMBAL), a MEMS gyro concept presented at the SENSIAC Joint Precision Azimuth Sensing Symposium, to address the problem of rate gyroscope drift, a particular issue for antenna pedestals. While macro-size gyroscopes, including fiber ring gyros, have achieved navigation-grade performance, Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyros have been limited to rate-grade performance, particularly in long-term bias drift. GIMBAL is particularly suited to addressing this, since it does not rely on the vibratory structure common in MEMS gyros. Instead, it uses a true spinning wheel for the proof mass, which will not have any mechanical linkages between axes, causing a bias drift much smaller than encountered in current MEMS-sized gyros. The Phase I program will involve design, fabrication, and test of the key encapsulated micro-gyro technology; system design of the complete rate gyro sensor including identification of risks and study of concept feasibility/other technologies; and characterization of key technology performance. In Phase II, a complete gyro sensor will be designed and built, and detailed tests and demonstrations will resolve design issues for the final design. The result will be a rate gyro that will address a critical need in antenna pedestal platforms. BENEFIT: This project will prove the concept of embedding a gyro rotor in a micro-cavity as a new spinning-wheel-based rate gyro unit for an antenna pedestal platform. Accelerometers have long held the lead in commercialized MEMS sensors, and MEMS inertial sensors in general have similar market potential. Other than guidance for antenna pedestals, general navigation will be the first larger-scale market, where the high performance will be required and a higher initial unit cost will be acceptable. Once unit costs reduce due to large production quantities, the automotive markets will become a viable target; these involve the purchase of millions of IMU’s each year In addition to antenna pedestal applications, the GIMBAL gyros will be applicable to DOD applications ranging from personnel tracking to munitions guidance. The target U.S. government markets will be the US Air Force, Army, and Navy (for use in antenna tracking and navigation), as well as DOD components (SOCOM, for example) that need more specialized tracking capabilities.
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 599.94K | Year: 2009
Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop the Friction-Sensing Reflector Array Patches (FRAP), a technology that will measure the shear stress distribution on aerodynamic surfaces in ground test facilities with high resolution, sensitivity, and bandwidth. Unlike the oil-film interference method, FRAP patches will not be thinned as a function of time during a test. No knowledge of the streamlines of the flow will be needed in order to calculate the local stress distribution; this will avoid the tracers needed with the oil-film interference approach. Flexible patches of FRAP arrays, inexpensive due to simple, mass-production-compatible microfabrication techniques, will be interrogated using a light source and camera. FRAP will be independent of the flow species and applied as a very thin, flexible, adhesive material. The Phase II goals will be to improve the design and fabrication of the sensors, fully calibrate taking into account competing effects such as normal forces and temperature, demonstrate feasibility in a wide range of test environments from subsonic to heated and cold supersonic, and provide prototype units to NASA. The result will be a product that will address a critical NASA instrumentation need.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.99K | Year: 2008
Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI), with the help of Westone, Inc., proposes to develop the Micro-Actuator Speaker System 2 (MASS-2): an active noise reduction (ANR) based hearing protection system for carrier deck environments. The core of MASS-2 will be a high-intensity version of the existing MASS microspeaker/microphone array developed at RSI for AFRL. RSI will develop a microfabricated device that can address the needs of higher sound levels (~150 dB) present on the flight deck. As part of the MASS-2 technology, an ANR algorithm will be developed to allow certain desirable noises and filter the others; RSI has patented a blind deconvolution technique called self-deconvolving data restoration algorithm, or SeDDaRA (US Patent 6,8595,64) that can be applied here. The Phase I MASS-2 program will involve design, fabrication, and test of a new configuration of the RSI microspeakers for higher sound output/sensitivity, developing an algorithm for active noise reduction/fitration, and characterization of the devices to predict their performance in an aircraft carrier application.