Research Studio iSPACE

Salzburg, Austria

Research Studio iSPACE

Salzburg, Austria
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Pregger T.,German Aerospace Center | Lavagno E.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Labriet M.,CIEMAT | Seljom P.,Institute for Energy Technology of Norway | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Energy Sector Management | Year: 2011

Purpose: Two main activities of the EC FP7 Risk of Energy Availability: Common Corridors for Europe Supply Security (REACCESS) project applied a systematic approach to collect the main characteristics of energy supply corridors starting from mining activities in exporting regions up to the import infrastructures and capacities of EU27+countries. The aim of the present paper is to summarise identified information on import potentials and the possible corridors for the EU27+energy supply of the future. This information is used as new starting point for the energy system modelling in the REACCESS project. Design/methodology/approach: Detailed information on existing, planned or potential developments derived from literature reviews and expert surveys, as well as from our own calculations, was compiled in a consistent database. By using suitable geographic information system (GIS) tools, all the identified energy supply routes were represented graphically and analysed with reference to their spatial characteristics. Findings: The information collected was used to generate a comprehensive database of resources, production capacities and import routes. Together with further detailed information on technological and economic parameters (not shown in this paper), this database provides new complete and consistent input for the modelling of import corridors and associated risks regarding the energy systems in Europe. Originality/value: The originality of the paper is the synthesis of a huge volume of information provided in the literature and own additional calculations in a consistent way. The resulting database provides the framework for the integration of security of supply aspects into energy scenario modelling, which is an important modelling challenge and one of the main tasks of REACCESS. The study considers oil, gas, coal and nuclear fuel as well as renewable imports of solar electricity and biomass, and also hydrogen as a possible new energy carrier. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Resch B.,Research Studio iSPACE | Resch B.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Schulz B.,Salzburg University of Applied Sciences | Mittlboeck M.,Research Studio iSPACE | Heistracher T.,Salzburg University of Applied Sciences
International Journal of Digital Earth | Year: 2014

Security has recently become a major concern in distributed geo-infrastructures for spatial data provision. Thus, a lightweight approach for securing distributed low-power environments such as geo-sensor networks is needed. The first part of this article presents a survey of current security mechanisms for authentication and authorisation. Based on this survey, a lightweight and scalable token-based security infrastructure was developed, which is tailored for use in distributed geo-web service infrastructures. The developed security framework comprises dedicated components for authentication, rule-based authorisation and optimised storage and administration of access rules. For validation purposes, a prototypical implementation of the approach has been created. © 2012 © 2012 Taylor & Francis.


Blaschke T.,University of Salzburg | Blaschke T.,Research Studio iSPACE | Hay G.J.,University of Calgary | Weng Q.,Indiana State University | Resch B.,Research Studio iSPACE
Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Cities are complex systems composed of numerous interacting components that evolve over multiple spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, no single data source is sufficient to satisfy the information needs required to map, monitor, model, and ultimately understand and manage our interaction within such urban systems. Remote sensing technology provides a key data source for mapping such environments, but is not sufficient for fully understanding them. In this article we provide a condensed urban perspective of critical geospatial technologies and techniques: (i) Remote Sensing; (ii) Geographic Information Systems; (iii) object-based image analysis; and (iv) sensor webs, and recommend a holistic integration of these technologies within the language of open geospatial consortium (OGC) standards in-order to more fully understand urban systems. We then discuss the potential of this integration and conclude that this extends the monitoring and mapping options beyond "hard infrastructure" by addressing "humans as sensors", mobility and human-environment interactions, and future improvements to quality of life and of social infrastructures. © 2011 by the authors.


Blaschke T.,University of Salzburg | Blaschke T.,Research Studio iSPACE | Biberacher M.,Research Studio iSPACE | Gadocha S.,Research Studio iSPACE | Schardinger I.,Research Studio iSPACE
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2013

Renewable energy will play a crucial role in the future society of the 21st century. The various renewable energy sources need to be balanced and their use carefully planned since they are characterized by high temporal and spatial variability that will pose challenges to maintaining a well balanced supply and to the stability of the grid. This article examines the ways that future 'energy landscapes' can be modelled in time and space. Biomass needs a great deal of space per unit of energy produced but it is an energy carrier that may be strategically useful in circumstances where other renewable energy carriers are likely to deliver less. A critical question considered in this article is whether a massive expansion in the use of biomass will allow us to construct future scenarios while repositioning the 'energy landscape' as an object of study. A second important issue is the utilization of heat from biomass energy plants. Biomass energy also has a larger spatial footprint than other carriers such as, for example, solar energy. This article seeks to provide a bridge between energy modelling and spatial planning while integrating research and techniques in energy modelling with Geographic Information Science. This encompasses GIS, remote sensing, spatial disaggregation techniques and geovisualization. Several case studies in Austria and Germany demonstrate a top-down methodology and some results while stepwise calculating potentials from theoretical to technically feasible potentials and setting the scene for the definition of economic potentials based on scenarios and assumptions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Contreras D.,University of Salzburg | Blaschke T.,University of Salzburg | Blaschke T.,Research Studio iSPACE | Kienberger S.,University of Salzburg | Zeil P.,University of Salzburg
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction | Year: 2014

There is a set of myths which are linked to the recovery of L'Aquila, such as: the L'Aquila recovery has come to a halt, it is still in an early recovery phase, and there is economic stagnation. The objective of this paper is threefold: (a) to identify and develop a set of spatial indicators for the case of L'Aquila, (b) to test the feasibility of a numerical assessment of these spatial indicators as a method to monitor the progress of a recovery process after an earthquake and (c) to answer the question whether the recovery process in L'Aquila stagnates or not. We hypothesize that after an earthquake the spatial distribution of expert defined variables can constitute an index to assess the recovery process more objectively. In these articles, we aggregated several indicators of building conditions to characterize the physical dimension, and we developed building use indicators to serve as proxies for the socio-economic dimension while aiming for transferability of this approach. The methodology of this research entailed six steps: (1) fieldwork, (2) selection of a sampling area, (3) selection of the variables and indicators for the physical and socio-economic dimensions, (4) analyses of the recovery progress using spatial indicators by comparing the changes in the restricted core area as well as building use over time; (5) selection and integration of the results through expert weighting; and (6) determining hotspots of recovery in L'Aquila. Eight categories of building conditions and twelve categories of building use were identified. Both indicators: building condition and building use are aggregated into a recovery index. The reconstruction process in the city center of L'Aquila seems to stagnate, which is reflected by the five following variables: percentage of buildings with on-going reconstruction, partial reconstruction, reconstruction projected residential building use and transport facilities. These five factors were still at low levels within the core area in 2012. Nevertheless, we can conclude that the recovery process in L'Aquila did not come to a halt but is still ongoing, albeit being slow. © 2014 The Authors.


Delmelle E.C.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | Haslauer E.,University of Salzburg | Prinz T.,Research Studio iSpace
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2013

Participation in social activities and the formation of social ties, networks, and capital are crucial in shaping not only the quality of life and health of an individual, but also in creating socially sustainable communities. This paper examines to what extent the urban environment shapes an individual's level of satisfaction with his or her social contacts. A particular emphasis is placed on isolating the role of commuting times in impeding this outcome. The city of Vienna, Austria, is used as a case study. A statistical model considers elements of an individual's neighborhood including population density and urban centrality, as well as personal characteristics and transportation-related factors. Results indicate that those with one-way commutes of 30. min or longer result in lower levels of social satisfaction. Residing in a neighborhood with high transit level of service and car ownership positively impact social satisfaction. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Research Studio iSPACE and University of Salzburg
Type: | Journal: Biomass & bioenergy | Year: 2015

Renewable energy will play a crucial role in the future society of the 21st century. The various renewable energy sources need to be balanced and their use carefully planned since they are characterized by high temporal and spatial variability that will pose challenges to maintaining a well balanced supply and to the stability of the grid. This article examines the ways that future energy landscapes can be modelled in time and space. Biomass needs a great deal of space per unit of energy produced but it is an energy carrier that may be strategically useful in circumstances where other renewable energy carriers are likely to deliver less. A critical question considered in this article is whether a massive expansion in the use of biomass will allow us to construct future scenarios while repositioning the energy landscape as an object of study. A second important issue is the utilization of heat from biomass energy plants. Biomass energy also has a larger spatial footprint than other carriers such as, for example, solar energy. This article seeks to provide a bridge between energy modelling and spatial planning while integrating research and techniques in energy modelling with Geographic Information Science. This encompasses GIS, remote sensing, spatial disaggregation techniques and geovisualization. Several case studies in Austria and Germany demonstrate a top-down methodology and some results while stepwise calculating potentials from theoretical to technically feasible potentials and setting the scene for the definition of economic potentials based on scenarios and assumptions.


Geographic information systems as a tool for assessing and implementing objectives of regional development policy can support spatial planning processes. This article presents a transboundary assessment of residential locations in the EuRegio of Salzburg. Based on a cross-border database and regarding general principles and objectives of various planning programs of Salzburg and Bavaria, a set of spatial indicators focussing on the proximity to important infrastructure facilities is carried out. These indicators are derived by using GIS-based methods and combined for a full assessment. The results of the analysis can be used as a basis for decision-making processes of regional planning and offer information for a prospective transboundary settlement development.


To estimate the available hydro power potential, to legitimate future expansions and to support location decisions a model is developed to calculate the theoretical potential of hydroelectric power for a study area (province of Salzburg, Austria). The model considers the following influencing factors: runoff, topography, precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration and retention in soil and snow. To determine the surface runoff, involving temperature and precipitation, the Snowmelt-Runoff-Model of Martinec and Rango (Martinec 1975) is adapted considering additionally evapotranspiration and modelled based upon the approach of Wendling (1975). This approach considers daily radiation and temperature values to estimate the daily amount of potential evapotranspiration. The estimation of hydropower potentials is done by calculating the potential energy of water. The input parameters therefore are the mass of water, the gravitational acceleration and the difference in height. The model calculation is based on grid cells (250 m resolution), applied in the model region "Salzburg" and calculates the hydro power potential taking into account the seasonal variance further the output is a model independent of time and location to ensure reproducibility.


Zaliwski A.S.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation | Faber A.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation | Pudelko R.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation | Biberacher M.,Research Studio iSPACE | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

The national energy policy of Poland supports the maintaining of coal as the main fuel in electricity generation in the foreseeable future, with the simultaneous increase in biomass use, especially from perennial energy crops, viewed as the source of 95% of biomass fuel. The present article analyzes the logistics of biomass supply using a transport cost linear programming minimization model to balance the supply with the demand. The supply was determined from a potential biomass production assessment. The demand was predicted according to two scenarios (for 2008 and 2020) of biomass demand by the 20 largest power stations in Poland. The analysis showed the radius of supply around the power stations to be uneven, depending on the demand and station location. Two logistic features were identified: border proximity and clustering. Power stations situated by the country border have supply areas extended inland. Proximate power stations tend to form clusters. The comparison of the radius of supply between the two scenarios indicates its uneven growth by 39-385% depending on a power station. In the 2020 scenario the radius of supply varies from 30 to 200 km. The upper part of this range is the effect of competition for supply area and is indicative of possible future problems with biomass supply and transport. Reduction of transport costs could be achieved by the introduction of individual demand quota or/and the introduction of other means of transport (rail, ship).

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