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Salzburg, Austria

Geographic information systems as a tool for assessing and implementing objectives of regional development policy can support spatial planning processes. This article presents a transboundary assessment of residential locations in the EuRegio of Salzburg. Based on a cross-border database and regarding general principles and objectives of various planning programs of Salzburg and Bavaria, a set of spatial indicators focussing on the proximity to important infrastructure facilities is carried out. These indicators are derived by using GIS-based methods and combined for a full assessment. The results of the analysis can be used as a basis for decision-making processes of regional planning and offer information for a prospective transboundary settlement development. Source

To estimate the available hydro power potential, to legitimate future expansions and to support location decisions a model is developed to calculate the theoretical potential of hydroelectric power for a study area (province of Salzburg, Austria). The model considers the following influencing factors: runoff, topography, precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration and retention in soil and snow. To determine the surface runoff, involving temperature and precipitation, the Snowmelt-Runoff-Model of Martinec and Rango (Martinec 1975) is adapted considering additionally evapotranspiration and modelled based upon the approach of Wendling (1975). This approach considers daily radiation and temperature values to estimate the daily amount of potential evapotranspiration. The estimation of hydropower potentials is done by calculating the potential energy of water. The input parameters therefore are the mass of water, the gravitational acceleration and the difference in height. The model calculation is based on grid cells (250 m resolution), applied in the model region "Salzburg" and calculates the hydro power potential taking into account the seasonal variance further the output is a model independent of time and location to ensure reproducibility. Source

Contreras D.,University of Salzburg | Blaschke T.,University of Salzburg | Blaschke T.,Research Studio iSPACE | Kienberger S.,University of Salzburg | Zeil P.,University of Salzburg
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction | Year: 2014

There is a set of myths which are linked to the recovery of L'Aquila, such as: the L'Aquila recovery has come to a halt, it is still in an early recovery phase, and there is economic stagnation. The objective of this paper is threefold: (a) to identify and develop a set of spatial indicators for the case of L'Aquila, (b) to test the feasibility of a numerical assessment of these spatial indicators as a method to monitor the progress of a recovery process after an earthquake and (c) to answer the question whether the recovery process in L'Aquila stagnates or not. We hypothesize that after an earthquake the spatial distribution of expert defined variables can constitute an index to assess the recovery process more objectively. In these articles, we aggregated several indicators of building conditions to characterize the physical dimension, and we developed building use indicators to serve as proxies for the socio-economic dimension while aiming for transferability of this approach. The methodology of this research entailed six steps: (1) fieldwork, (2) selection of a sampling area, (3) selection of the variables and indicators for the physical and socio-economic dimensions, (4) analyses of the recovery progress using spatial indicators by comparing the changes in the restricted core area as well as building use over time; (5) selection and integration of the results through expert weighting; and (6) determining hotspots of recovery in L'Aquila. Eight categories of building conditions and twelve categories of building use were identified. Both indicators: building condition and building use are aggregated into a recovery index. The reconstruction process in the city center of L'Aquila seems to stagnate, which is reflected by the five following variables: percentage of buildings with on-going reconstruction, partial reconstruction, reconstruction projected residential building use and transport facilities. These five factors were still at low levels within the core area in 2012. Nevertheless, we can conclude that the recovery process in L'Aquila did not come to a halt but is still ongoing, albeit being slow. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Blaschke T.,University of Salzburg | Blaschke T.,Research Studio iSPACE | Biberacher M.,Research Studio iSPACE | Gadocha S.,Research Studio iSPACE | Schardinger I.,Research Studio iSPACE
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2013

Renewable energy will play a crucial role in the future society of the 21st century. The various renewable energy sources need to be balanced and their use carefully planned since they are characterized by high temporal and spatial variability that will pose challenges to maintaining a well balanced supply and to the stability of the grid. This article examines the ways that future 'energy landscapes' can be modelled in time and space. Biomass needs a great deal of space per unit of energy produced but it is an energy carrier that may be strategically useful in circumstances where other renewable energy carriers are likely to deliver less. A critical question considered in this article is whether a massive expansion in the use of biomass will allow us to construct future scenarios while repositioning the 'energy landscape' as an object of study. A second important issue is the utilization of heat from biomass energy plants. Biomass energy also has a larger spatial footprint than other carriers such as, for example, solar energy. This article seeks to provide a bridge between energy modelling and spatial planning while integrating research and techniques in energy modelling with Geographic Information Science. This encompasses GIS, remote sensing, spatial disaggregation techniques and geovisualization. Several case studies in Austria and Germany demonstrate a top-down methodology and some results while stepwise calculating potentials from theoretical to technically feasible potentials and setting the scene for the definition of economic potentials based on scenarios and assumptions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Delmelle E.C.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | Haslauer E.,University of Salzburg | Prinz T.,Research Studio iSPACE
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2013

Participation in social activities and the formation of social ties, networks, and capital are crucial in shaping not only the quality of life and health of an individual, but also in creating socially sustainable communities. This paper examines to what extent the urban environment shapes an individual's level of satisfaction with his or her social contacts. A particular emphasis is placed on isolating the role of commuting times in impeding this outcome. The city of Vienna, Austria, is used as a case study. A statistical model considers elements of an individual's neighborhood including population density and urban centrality, as well as personal characteristics and transportation-related factors. Results indicate that those with one-way commutes of 30. min or longer result in lower levels of social satisfaction. Residing in a neighborhood with high transit level of service and car ownership positively impact social satisfaction. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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