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Hayakawa M.,University of Electro - Communications | Hayakawa M.,Research Station on Seismo Electromagnetics | Hayakawa M.,Analysis Inc.
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science | Year: 2011

In order to increase the credibility on the presence of electromagnetic phenomena associated with an earthquake, we have suggested the importance of the modulation (or fluctuation) seen in the time-series data of any seismogenic effects. This paper reviews the fluctuation spectra of seismogenic phenomena in order to indicate the modulation mechanisms in the lithosphere, atmosphere and ionosphere/magnetosphere. Especially, the effect of Earth's tides in the lithosphere and the modulation in the atmosphere (acoustic and atmospheric gravity waves) are discussed and this kind of fluctuation spectra would further provide essential information on the generation mechanisms of different seismogenic effects. Furthermore, the important role of the slope of fluctuation spectra is suggested in order to investigate the self-organized criticality before the lithospheric rupture and its associated effects in different regions such as the ionosphere. © Author(s) 2011. Source

Chen C.-H.,National Chung Cheng University | Wen S.,National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering | Liu J.-Y.,National Central University | Hattori K.,Chiba University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

Daily resolution data retrieved from the 1243 ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in Japan are utilized to expose surface displacements before the destructive M9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (March 11, 2011). Variations in the residual GPS data, in which effects of the long-term plate movements, short-term noise and frequency-dependent variations have been removed through a band-pass filter via the Hilbert-Huang transform, are compared with parameters of the focal mechanism associated with the Tohoku-Oki earthquake for validation. Analytical results show that the southward movements, which were deduced from the residual displacements and agree with the strike of the rupture fault, became evident on the 65th day before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. This observation suggests that the shear stress played an important role in the seismic incubation period. The westward movements, which are consistent with the angle of the maximum horizontal compressive stress, covered entire Japan and formed an impeded area (142°E, 42°N) about 75. km away from the epicenter on the 47th day prior to the earthquake. The horizontal displacements integrated with the vertical movements from the residual GPS data are very useful to construct comprehensive images in diagnosing the surface deformation from destructive earthquakes along the subduction zone. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hayakawa M.,University of Electro - Communications | Hayakawa M.,Research Station on Seismo Electromagnetics | Hobara Y.,UEC | Hobara Y.,Research Station on Seismo Electromagnetics
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk | Year: 2010

Short-term (timescale of hours, days and weeks) earthquake (EQ) prediction is of essential importance to mitigate EQ disasters. Short-term EQ prediction has so far been based on seismic measurements (i.e. mechanical observation of crustal movements), but it was concluded in Japan about 10 years ago that EQ prediction is impossible by means of the mechanical method. Hence, there has been an increased interest and a lot of progress in non-seismic measurement during the last decade. A new approach was developed where electromagnetic measurements provide microscopic information on the lithosphere. The present paper is intended to give a history of short-term EQ prediction, and also we hope that this paper reviews the current status of a new science field, 'seismo-electromagnetics'. We make a general review of different phenomena taking place in the lithosphere, atmosphere and the ionosphere, but we pay more attention to the subjects of our preference including lithospheric ultra low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic emissions, and seismo-ionospheric perturbations. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

Kasahara Y.,University of Electro - Communications | Kasahara Y.,Research Station on Seismo Electromagnetics | Muto F.,University of Electro - Communications | Muto F.,Research Station on Seismo Electromagnetics | And 4 more authors.
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science | Year: 2010

Huge five earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.0 took place in Asia (include Philippines, Indonesia, etc.) during the period from the beginning of August 2008 to the end of Junuary 2009, and the corresponding data of subionospheric VLF propagation between the NWC transmitter (Australia, 19.8 kHz) and a few Japanese stations (distance 6-8 Mm) are examined. As the result of our analysis by means of (1) trend (average nighttime amplitude), (2) dispersion, (3) nighttime fluctuation, and (4) atmospheric gravity wave enhancement, three earthquakes from the five taking place within the fifth Frenel zone are found to have accompanied a precursory signature in VLF propagation. On the other hand, there were observed no such precursory signatures for the remaing two earthquakes. One is too deep (>400 km) and another is too distant from the great-circle path. These characteristics of seismo-ionospheric perturbations would be of essential importance in studying the spatial/temporal properties of seismo-ionospheric perturbations for medium-distance propagation. © 2010 Author(s). Source

Hayakawa M.,University of Electro - Communications | Hayakawa M.,Research Station on Seismo Electromagnetics | Ohta K.,Chubu University | Sorokin V.M.,RAS Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics | Year: 2010

The observation of ULF/ELF electromagnetic waves in the frequency range below 50Hz has been continued at Nakatsugawa (in the Gifu prefecture), Japan since 1998. This paper summarizes anomalous Schumann resonance (SR) phenomena and SR-like line emissions observed at Nakatsugawa in possible association with recent nearby earthquakes (EQs) (the 2004 Mid-Niigata prefecture and the 2007 Noto-Hanto (peninsula) EQs), which have been already described in detail by Ohta et al. (2009). The intensity of particular modes of SR increased before these large EQs and the excitation of other anomalous SR-like line emissions also existed at the frequency shifted by about 2. Hz from the typical SR modes. Since temporal changes of the anomalous SR modes and line emissions are synchronous in time, there might be a possibility that the line emission is a consequence of the anomalous SR. In this paper we propose an interpretation of those anomalous phenomena in terms of excitation of gyrotropic waves due to input wave from below with a band from 15 to 20. Hz as an exciter. The theoretical computational results seem to be generally consistent with the observational finding. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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