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Andreies N.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti | Erculescu M.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2011

The regress of the pear tree culture in Romania is determined by some agrobiological particularities of the species and also by a series of subjective factors which belong to the professional breeding, the technical and material endowment level (cooling storages and packing) and equally by the fruits producers' economical strength. From the category of agrobiological factors, whose remediation is possible by genetic improvement, stand out as being importants: the sensibility of some cultivars of the present assortment to the attack of the Psylla sp., scab (Venturia pirina) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora). By the homologation of the six cultivars, respectively: Euras, Tudor, Romcor, Orizont, Corina si Cristal, a great part of the old assortment's were remediate, and also the pear tree culture could be relaunched, based on a suitable national level strategy. Source


Petre V.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti | Petre G.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2013

The researches performed at the Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti in the period 2004-2012, point out the creation of some new apple selection bases from the biological material, obtained by sexual hybridization. The increasing of genetic variability was remarked especially at the hybrid combinations, at which we used as genitors the recently created apple elites with genetic resistance to diseases, which included different resistance genes. The scab and mildew resistance feature was transmitted to a greater percentage in the case of hybrid combinations between the resistant cultivars - and in a more reduced percentage at the hybrid combinations: resistant cultivar x sensitive cultivar. The material undergoing selection and grafted in the nursery constitutes the base of the evaluation in test culture of the apple elites, regarding the features of productivity, fruits quality and genetic resistance to diseases. Source


Andreies N.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti | Erculescu M.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2013

The pear breeding program at the RSFG Voinesti started in 1950; beginning with 1960 we introduced, as a main selection objective, the resistance to the principal diseases and pests, alongside with the other agro-technical and technological characteristics. The principal source for the resistance to the diseases and pests were some grown biotypes, having the ascendance in Pyrus serotina. During a period of over half of a century, we realized a large biological material for the selection (about 12,000 hybrids F1; F2; F3 and F4), of which we selected and registered 6 new cultivars, which accumulated in their genotype the most important characteristics, established for the selection. In the still existing test cultures, there are many selections with perspective. Source


Petre V.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti | Petre G.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2011

The creation of new cultivars, as any productive activity, is a continuous process and is based on a technology, whose chain loops must be continuously perfected, in order to increase the efficiency. In the genetic improvement programmes, for obtaining new cultivars, the conventional methods are used - the intra- or the inter-specific hybridization, characterized by a long duration (24 - 27 years) and by high costs. The new method, with shortening of the period of obtaining the genetic disease resistant apple tree cultivars, replaces the selection field of the hybrids on own roots with a field of elites, selected in the juvenile phase from the fortification field, according to the growing and disease resistance peculiarities, grafted on low vigour rootstock (M9), planted at the definitive place at the distance of 3 × 0.5 m. The possibility to select elites is created, according to their character of resistance against diseases and to their fruits quality, during 3 - 4 years - and then the rapid transfer into competition micro-cultures. The researches performed at the Research Station for Fruit Growing (RSFG) Voinesti during the 2007-2010 period, point out the fact that, by promoting of chain loops for shortening the duration of obtaining of the genetic disease resistant apple tree cultivars in the process of improvement, the time period is reduced by 30-35%, as compared to the conventional method (25 - 28 years) - and almost 5 times the area for the selection fields - and to a significant amount the costs for the creation and the putting into account of a cultivar. Source


Petre G.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti | Comanescu D.N.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti | Petre V.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2013

The researches performed at the Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti, in the period 2007-2012, had as object the study of 13 disease resistant apple varieties, cultivated in the high density system, grafted on the M 9 rootstock, respectively: 'Ariwa', 'Golden Lasa', 'Goldrush', 'Enterprise', 'Inedit', 'Iris', 'Luca', 'Real', 'Rebra', 'Redix', 'Remar', 'Saturn', 'Voinicel', comparative with the 'Jonathan' variety, taken as control. The trees were planted at a distance of 4 x 1m (2.500 trees/Ha), spindle crown form. With high yield potential remarked themselves the disease resistant apple varieties 'Ariwa', 'Remar', 'Inedit' and 'Saturn', which in the years 4 - 6 after planting realized over 29 t/ha. In the same conditions, the apple varieties 'Real', 'Voinicel', 'Luca' and 'Iris' realized between 23,2 t/ha and 25,5 t/ha. The promotion of the high density apple tree system, in which disease resistant apple varieties are previewed, represents a modality for periodical and rapid replacement of the assortments, leading to the identification of new modern technologies in obtaining productions adapted to the requirements of the European quality standards. Source

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