Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta

Valu lui Traian, Romania

Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta

Valu lui Traian, Romania
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Paltineanu C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Septar L.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Chitu E.,Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti Maracineni
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2015

The paper describes the temperature profiles determined by thermal imagery in apricot tree canopies under the semi-arid conditions of the Black Sea Coast in a chernozem of Dobrogea Region, Romania. The study analyzes the thermal vertical profile of apricot orchards for three representative cultivars during summertime. Measurements were done when the soil water content (SWC) was at field capacity (FC) within the rooting depth, after intense sprinkler irrigation applications. Canopy temperature was measured during clear sky days at three heights for both sides of the apricot trees, sunlit (south), and shaded (north). For the SWC studied, i.e., FC, canopy height did not induce a significant difference between the temperature of apricot tree leaves (Tc) and the ambient air temperature (Ta) within the entire vertical tree profile, and temperature measurements by thermal imagery can therefore be taken at any height on the tree crown leaves. Differences between sunlit and shaded sides of the canopy were significant. Because of these differences for Tc-Ta among the apricot tree cultivars studied, lower base lines (LBLs) should be determined for each cultivar separately. The use of thermal imagery technique under the conditions of semi-arid coastal areas with low range of vapor pressure deficit could be useful in irrigation scheduling of apricot trees. The paper discusses the implications of the data obtained in the experiment under the conditions of the coastal area of the Black Sea, Romania, and neighboring countries with similar climate, such as Bulgaria and Turkey. © 2015 ISB


Topor E.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Vasilescu R.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Balan V.,University of Bucharest | Tudor V.,University of Bucharest
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

The Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta started a large apricot improvement programme in 1971, with the following objectives: extension of the harvesting season in order to obtain cultivars with late ripening as well as cultivars with early or very early ripening period. Many crosses were performed using genitors such as: Kets Pshor, Tudor, Marc.18/2, Olimp, Marc.9/5 and many other apricot hybrids, some of them for late blooming and ripening period, and others for their fruit qualities. In this paper we describe three new late maturing apricot cultivars named HISTRIA, EUXIN and AUGUSTIN ripening in the first half of August and some hybrids ripening between the end of August or the first ten days of September, namely: V.T.94.01.03 (20th August); V.T.94.01.21 (25th August); V.T.94.01.13 (11th September). The new cultivars are: HISTRIA (Worley's peach × Sulmona hybrid), late blooming, self-fertile with late ripening (8-15 August); EUXIN (R30P662 (Marc.18/2 × Olimp) × R41P62 (Marc.16/7 × Marc.73/9)), medium blooming period, self-fertile, with late ripening (6-14 August); AUGUSTIN (Marc.9/5 × Sulmona), medium blooming period, self-fertile with late maturity (10-15 August) and highly productive.


Indreias A.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Dumitru L.M.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Baciu A.A.,University of Craiova
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Research carried out at the Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta, Romania, studied the behaviour in the nursery and orchard trials of five rootstocks obtained in the breeding programme: three candidates 'Tomis 39', 'Tomis 28' and 'T16', were already registered, and two, H.CT. 83. 07. 024 and H.CT. 83. 07. 005, were new hybrid selections. These rootstocks were evaluated in the nursery, by grafting 8 scion cultivars: 'Cora', 'ARK 134', 'Stark Delicious' and 'Anemona' (nectarines), 'Redhaven' and 'Raluca' (peaches), 'Stark Saturn' and 'Filip' (flat peaches). Rootstocks grafted with 'Redhaven' peach cultivar were studied in the orchard. A grafting trial in the nursery resulted in trees with different vigour, depending on either the rootstock or cultivar. All rootstocks showed excellent compatibility with all peach cultivars tested. All rootstocks performed well in the orchard, showing good compatibility and high yields.


Paltineanu C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Septar L.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Moale C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper describes the crop water stress index (CWSI) related to the soil moisture content (SMC) in a chernozem of the Dobrogea region, Romania. The lower baselines (LBLs) for both sunny and shaded leaf conditions were drawn as regression equations between the difference of peach canopy temperature (Tc) and air temperature (Ta) versus the vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The lower baseline determined in the case of sunny leaves showed the highest coefficient of determination. The relationship between CWSI and the soil moisture content is inverse and highly significant, but with a low coefficient of determination. Soil variability, wind gusts, and agronomic factors could be responsible for this correlation. Irrigation should usually be applied at CWSI values of 0.18-0.20 in the case of sunny leaves. CWSI determined with the help of shaded leaves is of limited use in irrigation scheduling. The authors' conclusion is that the sunny CWSI values of 0.18-0.20 are appropriate for irrigation application in the case of such medium-textured and relatively homogeneous soils in irrigation scheduling for peach orchards grown under conditions similar to Constanta, Romania, and neighboring countries. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Indreias A.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

The research was carried out at the Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta, Romania, during 6 years, to study the behaviour of 5 generative rootstocks for apricot tree in the research nursery fields: Constanta 14, Constanta 16, C74-8-P2, C74-8-P5 and RR 15-20. All rootstocks were grafted with four Romanian apricot cultivars: Tudor, Fortuna, Orizont and Traian. The results of these investigations showed that the rootstocks were suitable for the tested apricot cultivars. The rootstocks, in the seedlings field, proved to be suitable because they had adequate seed germination, seedlings growth and good seedlings yields. The rootstocks-cultivars combinations gave good yield of standard grafted trees. Scion - rootstock compatibility was satisfactory with no external deformation.


Trandafirescu M.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Trandafirescu I.,Ovidius University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

The high density system in apricot trees culture has propagated a lot of damaging pests such as: Anarsia lineatella Zell, Cydia molesta Busck and Myzus persicae Sulz. The utilization of insecticides as the main method of control of these insects has already induced pest resistance and exerts a negative impact on the environment, soil texture and structure, accumulation of toxic residues in soil and fruits, etc. To prevent all these negative aspects, studies on the biological efficacy of the products based on plant extracts (Artemisia apsinthium, Chelidonium majus, Allium sativum) were carried out. The experiment included the 'Tudor' apricot cultivars. To find out the optimum timing for application, pheromone traps like 'Atralin' and 'Atramol' were employed and the sprays were done only when the damage economic threshold (D.E.T.) was exceeded, namely 80-100 butterflies per trap, per week. The results recorded with those products applied to control Anarsia lineatella Zell., Cydia molesta Busck and Myzus persicae Sulz., have enabled to estimate them as a certain alternative to the pest chemical control. The product values will be enhanced having in view they are harmless to human beings, to the environment and the useful entomofauna, and not to maintain their toxic residues in fruit.


Indreiasa A.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The study was carried out during a period of 7 years at the Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta, Romania. An experimental orchard was planted in Spring 1997, at 4.5×4 m, to investigate the interactions between 5 rootstocks and 2 cultivars ('Springcrest' and 'Redhaven'). The rootstocks tested were T16 and 4 intraspecific hybrids: Tomis 39 (T16' x Hui Hun Tao), H. CT. 83. 07. 024 (T16 x Siberian C), H.CT. 84.13.005 (Bailey x Siberian C) and Tomis 28 (T16 x Bailey). We evaluated production per tree and hectare, trunk cross-sectional area, shoot growth, average fruit weight, fruit size, juice acidity and fruit dry matter and stone weight ratio. There were significant differences among rootstocks in productivity, tree growth and fruit size for both cultivars. Significant differences were found between cultivars for most observed parameters. Fruit acidity and dry matter were similar for rootstocks and the studied cultivars.


Indreiasa A.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

We studied the behavior in the nursery of six rootstocks for peach trees: three from Romania (T16, Tomis 28 and Tomis 39) and three from other countries (PSC 12 from Italy, AID1 and AID2 from Greece) at the Research Station for Fruit Growing in Constanta, Romania. We compared seed germination and performance in the nursery. The rootstocks were grafted with 5 cultivars in the nursery: 'Delta', 'Cora', 'Stark's Delicious' (nectarine cultivars), 'Raluca' and 'Redhaven' (peach cultivars). We found that Romanian rootstocks had smaller seeds than rootstocks from Italy or Greece. The rootstocks had differing seed germination percentages from good to very good, and the seedlings had vigorous growth and very high yields. The rootstocks behaved very well at rooting and in the grafting process and had high production of grafted trees ha -1. They had good compatibility with the scion cultivars and exhibited no external deformations. We also observed different vigor in the nursery, depending on rootstock and cultivar. These results showed that Romanian peach rootstocks were good stocks for peach and nectarine production.


Paltineanu Cr.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Septar L.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Moale Cr.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Oprita A.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Lamureanu G.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The purpose of this paper is to report a study on the response of peach to water stress under sprinkler irrigation conditions in the south-eastern part of Romania, in order to use irrigation water as efficiently as possible. Three sprinkling irrigation regimes have been investigated in a two-year experiment: I) fully irrigated to field capacity, T1, ii) irrigated under stress conditions with various water amounts in: May (T2), June (T3), and July (T4) and iii) an un-irrigated control treatment (T5). Soil water potential was determined by installing resistance block type soil water potential sensors (Watermark) at four soil depths (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm) and these data were recorded by data loggers. Soil water content measurements were made on a weekly basis and both before and after irrigation application. The results show that, in order to save water, irrigation under water stress should be applied so that soil water content is allowed to decrease below 50% of the total available water within a soil depth of about 1 m. The rootstock should allow development of the rooting system down to the above depth to allow water uptake from a bigger soil volume. The maximum irrigation water use efficiency has been obtained in the water stress treatments. © ISHS.


Paltineanu C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Septar L.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Moale C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2013

Due to the competition for water resources, increasing efforts are done in order to use more efficiently irrigation water in agriculture. The purpose of this paper is to find out daily soil water content (SWC) dynamics during depletion cycles in order to emphasize its pattern and compare daylight vs. night (dark) and morning vs. afternoon SWC dynamics in an irrigated peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) orchard under various soil water regimes. To do this, four depletion cycles were studied after irrigation application in two treatments: fully irrigated (T1) and water stressed (T2), in a semiarid region of Romania. Soil water potential was continuously measured with Watermark resistance blocks. Daylight soil water discharge (SWD) is higher than night SWD (1.87 ratio in T1 and 1.50 in T2) mainly due to solar radiation (Rs), higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and wind speed (U), with crop transpiration and crop water uptake being higher during daylight vs. nighttime. SWD during 14:00-20:00 h is greater than 08:00-14:00 h due to higher afternoon values of air temperature (T), VPD, and U. The results help understand better the relations between the daily dynamics of SWC and Rs, T, VPD, and U, and could be utilized by fruit growers to improve water management and conservation in semiarid regions with similar environmental conditions.

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