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Paltineanu C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Mateescu E.,National Meteorological Administration
International Agrophysics | Year: 2012

The paper deals with the trend for Penman- Monteith reference evapotranspiration and climatic water deficit during the first decade of the 21st century in Southern Romania vs the 20th century. For the first half of the year the monthly evapotranspiration values were higher for the first decade of the 21st century vs the means of the 20th century. However, the trend reverses for the second half of the year, but for the whole year the totals were higher for the first decade of the 21st century vs the totals of the 20th century. The yearly temperature means in the first decade of the XXI century showed an increase in the three locations studied, respectively, vs century XX. This warming is responsible to a great extent for the increase in evapotranspiration, and the relationship between evapotranspiration and temperature was highly significant. Water deficit decreased in Constanta and Pitesti, but there was a slight increase in water deficit in the same period in Bucharest-Baneasa. Water deficit increased in the first half of the year and decreased in the second half during the first decade of century XXI in all the three locations investigated vs century XX. © 2012 Institute of Agrophysic.

Paltineanua C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Tanasescu N.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The paper describes the lower base line (LBL) and upper base line (UBL) for apple orchards and the relationships between the crop water stress index (CWSI) and the soil moisture content (SMC) in a loamy soil. The experiment was carried out at Pitesti-Maracineni, southern Romania, during two growing seasons, in an apple orchard 12 years old, with cultivar 'Idared' grafted on M9 rootstock. The lower base line was drawn as a regression equation between the apple crop and air temperature difference versus the vapor pressure deficit. The CWSI mainly ranged between 0.10 and 0.80. The relationship between CWSI and the soil moisture content is inverse and highly significant but with low R 2 (0.392). Soil variability, intermittent cloudiness and agronomic factors could be responsible for this correlation. The practical recommendation in irrigation scheduling of this orchard is that CWSI values of 0.20 to 0.30 indicate the need for application of 500 to 700 m 3 ha -1 irrigation under the specific conditions of the region.

Paltineanu C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Mateescu E.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest
International Agrophysics | Year: 2011

This paper deals with the trend for Penman- Monteith reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements of some crops during the first decade of the 21st century versus the 20th century. These indices were calculated for three weather stations in various regions of southern Romania. Monthly distribution of reference evapotranspiration showed that for the first half of the year, these values were higher than the means of the 20th century. In the first decade of century XXI, crop evapotranspiration specifically increased in May, June and July, while the increase was negligible in August and it decreased in September. High crop evapotranspiration values were especially met for alfalfa and sugar beet. Irrigation water requirements increased in May and June. It had practically the same values in July and August, whereas irrigation application decreased in September. There is no need to irrigate during this month except in severe droughts. © 2011 Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences.

Dumitru L.M.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Gavat C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

At the Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta four cultivars were obtained in the last years: 'Marina' and 'Liana' - nectarines with flat fruit; 'Valerica' and 'Anemona' - brugnones. All these varieties have excellent quality of fruit, high productivity and enrich the present nectarine assortment.

Trandafirescu M.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Septar L.,Research Station for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The oriental peach moth (Cydia molesta Busch) and peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella Zell), represent the most damaging pest species, with economic importance, for the peach culture in the South Eastern part of Romania. The larva of the first generations attacks only the shoots, but the larvae belonging to the next generations, attack both the growing shoots and the fruits as well, when fruits color advance. As a consequence, the shoots wilts and dye and the fruits fall down or became to rot, losing their commercial value. In order to control these two small Lepidoptera, the exclusive use of synthetic insecticides, represent a main source for the fruits and environment pollution, affecting the human health. Aiming to prevent these negative effects, this work goal was to determine the biological efficacy of some vegetal extracts, and then to include them in the integrated management program of the two peach pests species. To achieve this goal, extracts of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and common nettle (Urtica dioica L.) were tested. The experiment included the 'Southland' peach cultivar. To find out the optimum timing for application, pheromone traps like "Atramol" and "Atralin" were employed and the sprays were done only when the economic damage threshold (E.D.T.) was exceeded, namely 80-100 butterflies per trap, per week. The results recorded with those vegetal extracts applied to control Cydia molesta Busch and Anarsia lineatella Zell, have enabled to estimate them as a certain alternative to the pest chemical control. The vegetal extracts values will be enhanced having in view they are harmless to human beings, to the environment and the useful entomofauna, and not maintain their toxic residues in fruit.

Indreias A.,Research Station for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

A Breeding Program to obtain new rootstocks for peach began thirty three years ago at the Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta, Romania and consisted of: prospecting native and cultivated tree flora from the area, finding some rootstock selections well adapted to local specific conditions; introduction of the valuable rootstocks as well as the species used world-wide, increasing the hereditary base. This resulted in the establishment of a germplasm collection necessary for the creation of new rootstocks; study of genitors (parental) characters was made in this collection with a view of finding the best genitors; establishing of genitors for different characters; intra- and inter-specific hybridizations, self- and free-pollination. This Program has been carried out according to several objectives: late blooming, late ripening, high and regular yields, easy propagation by seeds, nursery performances, different levels of vigor, graft compatibility with all cultivars, yield precocity and efficiency, size and quality of fruits, adaptability to soils with excess of calcium, resistance to frost, drought, and diseases. Until the present time, breeding works had produced over 5500 hybrids of free pollination and F1, C1, C2, F2 generations. Among 3500 seedlings hybrids obtained by crosspollination 100 were selected in the last time in our Research Station trials as advanced selections. Up to date 5 peach rootstocks have been released and registered: 3 from selection ('T16', 'Tomis 1', 'Tomis 79') and 2 from intra-specific hybridizations, ('Tomis 28' and 'Tomis 39'). There were also other valuable selections which were tested in the nursery field and will be tested in the orchard.

Fruits from 6-year-old 'Topaz' (Malus ×domestica 'Topaz') trees were harvested at two different stages of maturity (Optimal harvest date OHD, OHD + 1 week) from the same transitional organic orchard in the experimental station of Haidegg in 2007. After harvest fruits of each stage of maturity (ca. 80 kg) were stored for approximately 8 months under different storage conditions (controlled atmosphere and dynamic controlled atmosphere). Recommended CA conditions were used as a reference (1.5°C, O2 1.5%, CO 2 3.0%) and DCA was based on the fruit's fluorescence response to low oxygen stress, O2 was set at 0.3-0.4% plus 1.5% CO2 in DCA. After 240 days storage and a 7 days shelf-life period at 20°C fruit quality was assessed automatically with the "Pimprenelle" laboratory device. Browning disorders (cavities, flesh and brown core) and storage diseases were estimated visually. DCA storage maintained firmness and titratable acidity at higher levels compared to CA. DCA storage technology reduced browning disorders for more than 67% and Gloeosporium rot (GR) to 18% related to fruits stored only in CA. Neither low O2 and nor external CO2 injury was observed in DCA.

Erculescu G.,Research Station for Fruit Growing
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2011

The rapid development of the new plant protection methods is strongly related to the rapid development of the technical realization means. Hence it is necessary to perform an integration of the research works in the domain of the agro-pharmaceutical products and also in the domain of the sprinkling devices and machines. The diversity of sprinkling devices and machinery, the physical-chemical features of the pesticides, of the pathogens, require particularly pretentious endeavor regarding the preparation, the applying and the evaluation of each treatment. The applying quality consists in assuring a certain commercial product dose (active substance) per surface unit. The assurance of the phyto-sanitary product dose per surface unit and of the solution repartition uniformity (the quality working indices) - the principal conditions for the realization of a treatment - depend on respecting the solution norm, its concentration and the constructive and functional parameters of the sprinkling machinery's active organs.

Bolbose C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2011

Adoxophyes reticulana Hb., the summer fruit skin moth, has adapted recently to the intensive apple tree cultures of the Voineşti zone. The grub developed in the first phase on the young leaves, then attacked with priority the skin of the fruits. The most attacked cultivar is: Prima, Ionathan, Golden Delicious and Red Delicious. The damages are greater in the young orchards than in the aged ones. They present two generations per year during April - September period. The most important and damaging is the second generation. The use of pheromone traps contributes to establishing the optimal periods for the treatment with chemical products. The best results showed the product AFFIRM SG 095 conc. 0.26% + MINERAL OIL conc. 0.2%, studied in the period of the years 2009 - 2010 at the R.S.F.G. Voinesti, as compared with the " untreated witness" variant. The used product presents a high importance for obtaining an efficient production.

Vorstermans B.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Creemers P.,Research Station for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

In Europe, the pome fruit growing industry is currently confronted with residue restrictions imposed by marketing chains as retail companies and import countries. Next to a high quality product also a limited residue loading on the fruit surface is requested. Particularly the number of active ingredients on the fruit surface is restricted, and also some standard applied plant protection products (PPPs) are prohibited. The chemical fungicides applied shortly before harvest towards fruit rot decay during storage are frequently detected after analytical analysis. Therefore, these chemicals are, at the moment, in the focus of interest of the industry. To this end, research concerning alternative approaches has exploded in the past years. The European government is also stimulating this kind of research indirectly as each member state is demanded to adopt a national action plan to reduce risks and impacts of pesticide use on human health and the environment (Directive 2009/128/EC). In collaboration with the plant protection industry research was done to investigate non-chemical alternatives for postharvest disease control. Several yeast strains were selected and formulated to verify their potential as a biological control agent (BCA). In order to enhance the efficacy, the supplementary effect of natural products and physical treatments is also implemented in this study. As for the application technique in general, a postharvest treatment by dipping, which is a more standardized application where all parameters can be quantified and controlled, is selected. In addition to the fruit surface, also wounds, caused by picking and transport, will be covered resulting in a higher biological efficacy towards key wound pathogens as Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium spp. Depending on the type of BCA some promising results were obtained. Nevertheless, more research under practical conditions is requested to implement these non-chemical products into an integrated system.

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