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Indreias A.,Research Station for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

A Breeding Program to obtain new rootstocks for peach began thirty three years ago at the Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta, Romania and consisted of: prospecting native and cultivated tree flora from the area, finding some rootstock selections well adapted to local specific conditions; introduction of the valuable rootstocks as well as the species used world-wide, increasing the hereditary base. This resulted in the establishment of a germplasm collection necessary for the creation of new rootstocks; study of genitors (parental) characters was made in this collection with a view of finding the best genitors; establishing of genitors for different characters; intra- and inter-specific hybridizations, self- and free-pollination. This Program has been carried out according to several objectives: late blooming, late ripening, high and regular yields, easy propagation by seeds, nursery performances, different levels of vigor, graft compatibility with all cultivars, yield precocity and efficiency, size and quality of fruits, adaptability to soils with excess of calcium, resistance to frost, drought, and diseases. Until the present time, breeding works had produced over 5500 hybrids of free pollination and F1, C1, C2, F2 generations. Among 3500 seedlings hybrids obtained by crosspollination 100 were selected in the last time in our Research Station trials as advanced selections. Up to date 5 peach rootstocks have been released and registered: 3 from selection ('T16', 'Tomis 1', 'Tomis 79') and 2 from intra-specific hybridizations, ('Tomis 28' and 'Tomis 39'). There were also other valuable selections which were tested in the nursery field and will be tested in the orchard. Source

Fruits from 6-year-old 'Topaz' (Malus ×domestica 'Topaz') trees were harvested at two different stages of maturity (Optimal harvest date OHD, OHD + 1 week) from the same transitional organic orchard in the experimental station of Haidegg in 2007. After harvest fruits of each stage of maturity (ca. 80 kg) were stored for approximately 8 months under different storage conditions (controlled atmosphere and dynamic controlled atmosphere). Recommended CA conditions were used as a reference (1.5°C, O2 1.5%, CO 2 3.0%) and DCA was based on the fruit's fluorescence response to low oxygen stress, O2 was set at 0.3-0.4% plus 1.5% CO2 in DCA. After 240 days storage and a 7 days shelf-life period at 20°C fruit quality was assessed automatically with the "Pimprenelle" laboratory device. Browning disorders (cavities, flesh and brown core) and storage diseases were estimated visually. DCA storage maintained firmness and titratable acidity at higher levels compared to CA. DCA storage technology reduced browning disorders for more than 67% and Gloeosporium rot (GR) to 18% related to fruits stored only in CA. Neither low O2 and nor external CO2 injury was observed in DCA. Source

Erculescu G.,Research Station for Fruit Growing
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2011

The rapid development of the new plant protection methods is strongly related to the rapid development of the technical realization means. Hence it is necessary to perform an integration of the research works in the domain of the agro-pharmaceutical products and also in the domain of the sprinkling devices and machines. The diversity of sprinkling devices and machinery, the physical-chemical features of the pesticides, of the pathogens, require particularly pretentious endeavor regarding the preparation, the applying and the evaluation of each treatment. The applying quality consists in assuring a certain commercial product dose (active substance) per surface unit. The assurance of the phyto-sanitary product dose per surface unit and of the solution repartition uniformity (the quality working indices) - the principal conditions for the realization of a treatment - depend on respecting the solution norm, its concentration and the constructive and functional parameters of the sprinkling machinery's active organs. Source

Paltineanua C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Tanasescu N.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The paper describes the lower base line (LBL) and upper base line (UBL) for apple orchards and the relationships between the crop water stress index (CWSI) and the soil moisture content (SMC) in a loamy soil. The experiment was carried out at Pitesti-Maracineni, southern Romania, during two growing seasons, in an apple orchard 12 years old, with cultivar 'Idared' grafted on M9 rootstock. The lower base line was drawn as a regression equation between the apple crop and air temperature difference versus the vapor pressure deficit. The CWSI mainly ranged between 0.10 and 0.80. The relationship between CWSI and the soil moisture content is inverse and highly significant but with low R 2 (0.392). Soil variability, intermittent cloudiness and agronomic factors could be responsible for this correlation. The practical recommendation in irrigation scheduling of this orchard is that CWSI values of 0.20 to 0.30 indicate the need for application of 500 to 700 m 3 ha -1 irrigation under the specific conditions of the region. Source

Bolbose C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2011

Adoxophyes reticulana Hb., the summer fruit skin moth, has adapted recently to the intensive apple tree cultures of the Voineşti zone. The grub developed in the first phase on the young leaves, then attacked with priority the skin of the fruits. The most attacked cultivar is: Prima, Ionathan, Golden Delicious and Red Delicious. The damages are greater in the young orchards than in the aged ones. They present two generations per year during April - September period. The most important and damaging is the second generation. The use of pheromone traps contributes to establishing the optimal periods for the treatment with chemical products. The best results showed the product AFFIRM SG 095 conc. 0.26% + MINERAL OIL conc. 0.2%, studied in the period of the years 2009 - 2010 at the R.S.F.G. Voinesti, as compared with the " untreated witness" variant. The used product presents a high importance for obtaining an efficient production. Source

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