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Turcekova L.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Hurnikova Z.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Hurnikova Z.,University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice | Spisak F.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2014

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a broad spectrum of warm-blooded vertebrate species. As a part of the food chain, farm animals play a significant role in transmission of T. gondii to humans, while rats and mice serve as a main source of infection for free-living animals. The spread of toxoplasmosis in the human population is due to the interchange of the domestic and sylvatic cycles. During 2009-2011, a survey on toxoplasmosis distribution was conducted in wildlife of the Tatra National Park (TANAP) in Slovakia. A total of 60 animals were examined. The presence of T. gondii was detected by means of molecular methods based on TGR1E gene analyses. The highest prevalence was recorded in birds (40.0%), followed by carnivores (30.8%) and rodents (18.2%). RFLP analyses of SAG2 locus confirmed in birds the genotype II and III, belonging to the avirulent strain; rodents exclusively had genotype I, characterised as a virulent strain, and in carnivores all three genotypes were detected. These results present the first survey on the parasite's occurrence in several species of free-living animals in the TANAP area. An epidemiological study confirmed the prevalence of 30.0%, implicitly referring to the level of environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. Source

Gomoryova E.,Technical University In Zvolen | Fleischer P.,Research Station and Museum of the Tatra National Park | Gomory D.,Technical University In Zvolen
Forestry Journal | Year: 2014

Soil microbial communities were studied in the Tatra National Park, which was affected by a windthrow in 2004 and by fire in 2005. The objective of the study was to compare the response of soil microorganisms to different management regimes on disturbed areas and to evaluate the microbial community changes during the period 2006-2013. Soil samples were taken from the A-horizon along 90 m transects on 4 plots (reference intact plot, plot with extracted wood, burnt plot, plot with fallen trees left in situ). Basal and substrateinduced respiration, microbial biomass carbon (C), nitrogen (N) mineralisation, catalase activity, and richness and diversity of microbial functional groups were determined in soil samples using the BIOLOG EcoPlates. Generally, the highest microbial activity and biomass C were revealed at the reference and fire plots. No distinct differences in microbial attributes were found between the extracted and nonextracted plots. At all windthrow plots, substrate-induced respiration, microbial biomass C and N-mineralisation showed a significant increasing linear trend with time what indicates a gradual recovery of microbial community at plots after windthrow. © 2015 by Erika Gömöryová. Source

Gomoryova E.,Technical University In Zvolen | Strelcova K.,Technical University In Zvolen | Fleischer P.,Research Station and Museum of the Tatra National Park | Gomory D.,Technical University In Zvolen
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

This study focused on the responses of soil microorganisms to different management regimes on disturbed windthrow areas. Microbial parameters potentially serving as indicators of environmental changes within a long-term monitoring of forest development after large-scale disturbance events were assessed. Basal and substrate-induced respiration, N mineralisation, catalase activity, microbial biomass as well as functional diversity based on Biolog assay were determined in soil samples from three disturbed plots and an undisturbed reference plot in the Tatra National Park (Slovakia) since 2006. A relative congruence of inter-annual trends of microbial activity indicators at all plots results from a common response of microbiota to changes of climate at the landscape level after forest stands were destroyed. While catalase activity and functional diversity proved to be useful indicators of temporal trends, microbial biomass seems to reflect different management regimes at the disturbed plots. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Hurnikova Z.,University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice | Hurnikova Z.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Hrckova G.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Agren E.,National Veterinary Institute | And 5 more authors.
Helminthologia (Poland) | Year: 2014

The worldwide distribution of Trichinella pseudospiralis, the first discovered non-encapsulated Trichinella species infecting both mammals and avian hosts, has been suggested to be attributed to bird migration. At present, the knowledge on the role of carnivorous avian species as a reservoir hosts in Europe is still limited. Thus, the aim of this research was to screen for T. pseudospiralis in raptorial, carrion-feeding, and scavenging birds in Sweden and Slovakia, where the parasite has been previously documented in wildlife. In total, 212 pectoral muscle samples of carnivorous birds from Slovakia (n = 153) and Sweden (n = 59) were examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae using standard artificial digestion method. Out of 12 Accipitridae species, 4 Falconidae species, 2 Strigidae species, 1 Tytonidae species, and 4 Corvidae species examined within our study, muscle larvae were found in two non-migratory tawny owls (Strix aluco) from one geographical region of Sweden. Histological and molecular methods confirmed the presence of T. pseudospiralis. This is the first report of this parasite in an avian species in Sweden and the second report in European birds. © 2014, Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

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