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Soleimani M.,University of Cincinnati | Soleimani M.,Research Services
Kidney International | Year: 2013

Solute-linked carrier 26 (SLC26) isoforms constitute a conserved family of anion transporters with 10 distinct members. Except for SLC26A5 (prestin), all can operate as multifunctional anion exchangers, with three members (SLC26A7, SLC26A9, and SLC26A11) also capable of functioning as chloride channels. Several SLC26 isoforms can specifically mediate Cl-/HCO3 - exchange. These include SLC26A3, A4, A6, A7, A9, and A11, which are expressed in the kidney except for SLC26A3 (DRA), which is predominantly expressed in the intestine. SLC26 Cl-/HCO3 - exchanger isoforms display unique nephron segment distribution patterns with distinct subcellular localization in the kidney tubules. Together with studies in pathophysiologic states and the examination of genetically engineered mouse models, the evolving picture points to important roles for the SLC26 family in health and disease states. This review summarizes recent advances in the characterization of the SLC26 Cl-/HCO3 - exchangers in the kidney with emphasis on their essential role in diverse physiological processes, including chloride homeostasis, oxalate excretion and kidney stone formation, vascular volume and blood pressure regulation, and acid-base balance. © 2013 International Society of Nephrology.

Young M.R.,Research Services | Young M.R.,Medical University of South Carolina
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy | Year: 2012

Endothelial cell activation in the process of tumor angiogenesis and in various aspects of vascular biology has been extensively studied. However, endothelial cells also function in other capacities, including in immune regulation. Compared to the more traditional immune regulatory populations (Th1, Th2, Treg, etc.), endothelial cells have received far less credit as being immune regulators. Their regulatory capacity is multifaceted. They are critical in both limiting and facilitating the trafficking of various immune cell populations, including T cells and dendritic cells, out of the vasculature and into tissue. They also can be induced to stimulate immune reactivity or to be immune inhibitory. In each of these parameters (trafficking, immune stimulation and immune inhibition), their role can be physiological, whereby they have an active role in maintaining health. Alternatively, their role can be pathological, whereby they contribute to disease. In theory, endothelial cells are in an ideal location to recruit cells that can mediate immune reactivity to tumor tissue. Furthermore, they can activate the immune cells as they transmigrate across the endothelium into the tumor. However, what is seen is the absence of these protective effects of endothelial cells and, instead, the endothelial cells succumb to the defense mechanisms of the tumor, resulting in their acquisition of a tumor-protective role. To understand the immune regulatory potential of endothelial cells in protecting the host versus the tumor, it is useful to better understand the other circumstances in which endothelial cells modulate immune reactivities. Which of the multitude of immune regulatory roles that endothelial cells can take on seems to rely on the type of stimulus that they are encountering. It also depends on the extent to which they can be manipulated by potential dangers to succumb and contribute toward attack on the host. This review will explore the physiological and pathological roles of endothelial cells as they regulate immune trafficking, immune stimulation and immune inhibition in a variety of conditions and will then apply this information to their role in the tumor environment. Strategies to harness the immune regulatory potential of endothelial cells are starting to emerge in the non-tumor setting. Results from such efforts are expected to be applicable to being able to skew endothelial cells from having a tumor-protective role to a hostprotective role. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Jenkins M.M.,University of California at San Diego | Jenkins M.M.,Research Services | Youngstrom E.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Youngstrom E.A.,Child and Adolescent Services Research Center
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology | Year: 2016

Objective: This study examined the efficacy of a new cognitive debiasing intervention in reducing decision-making errors in the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method: The study was a randomized controlled trial using case vignette methodology. Participants were 137 mental health professionals working in different regions of the United States (M = 8.6 ± 7.5 years of experience). Participants were randomly assigned to a (a) brief overview of PBD (control condition), or (b) the same brief overview plus a cognitive debiasing intervention (treatment condition) that educated participants about common cognitive pitfalls (e.g., base-rate neglect, search satisficing) and taught corrective strategies (e.g., mnemonics, Bayesian tools). Both groups evaluated 4 identical case vignettes. Primary outcome measures were clinicians' diagnoses and treatment decisions. The vignette characters' race or ethnicity was experimentally manipulated. Results: Participants in the treatment group showed better overall judgment accuracy, p < .001, and committed significantly fewer decision-making errors, p < .001. Inaccurate and somewhat accurate diagnostic decisions were significantly associated with different treatment and clinical recommendations, particularly in cases where participants missed comorbid conditions, failed to detect the possibility of hypomania or mania in depressed youths, and misdiagnosed classic manic symptoms. In contrast, effects of patient race were negligible. Conclusions: The cognitive debiasing intervention outperformed the control condition. Examining specific heuristics in cases of PBD may identify especially problematic mismatches between typical habits of thought and characteristics of the disorder. The debiasing intervention was brief and delivered via the Web; it has the potential to generalize and extend to other diagnoses as well as to various practice and training settings. © 2016 American Psychological Association.

Soleimani M.,University of Cincinnati | Soleimani M.,Research Services
Kidney International | Year: 2015

Insulin resistance is associated with hypertension. Nakamura et al. demonstrate in rodents and humans with insulin resistance that while the stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake in adipocytes, mediated via insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), was severely diminished, its effect on salt reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule, mediated via IRS2, was preserved. Compensatory hyperinsulinemia in individuals with insulin resistance may enhance salt absorption in the proximal tubule, resulting in a state of salt overload and hypertension. © 2014 International Society of Nephrology.

Autonomic imbalances including parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity are cardinal features of heart failure regardless of etiology; however, mechanisms underlying these imbalances remain unknown. Animal model studies of heart and visceral organ hypertrophy predict that nerve growth factor levels should be elevated in heart failure; whether this is so in human heart failure, though, remains unclear. We tested the hypotheses that neurons in cardiac ganglia are hypertrophied in human, canine, and rat heart failure and that nerve growth factor, which we hypothesize is elevated in the failing heart, contributes to this neuronal hypertrophy. Somal morphology of neurons from human (579.54±14.34 versus 327.45±9.17 μm(2); P<0.01) and canine hearts (767.80±18.37 versus 650.23±9.84 μm(2); P<0.01) failing secondary to ischemia and neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rat hearts (327.98±3.15 versus 271.29±2.79 μm(2); P<0.01) failing secondary to hypertension reveal significant hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia compared with controls. Western blot analysis shows that nerve growth factor levels in the explanted, failing human heart are 250% greater than levels in healthy donor hearts. Neurons from cardiac ganglia cultured with nerve growth factor are significantly larger and have greater dendritic arborization than neurons in control cultures. Hypertrophied neurons are significantly less excitable than smaller ones; thus, hypertrophy of vagal postganglionic neurons in cardiac ganglia would help to explain the parasympathetic withdrawal that accompanies heart failure. Furthermore, our observations suggest that nerve growth factor, which is elevated in the failing human heart, causes hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia.

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