Cleveland, OH, United States
Cleveland, OH, United States

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Kern T.S.,Case Western Reserve University | Kern T.S.,VAMC Research Service 151 | Miller C.M.,Case Western Reserve University | Miller C.M.,Alcon | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Vision | Year: 2010

Purpose: We compared three rat strains to determine if different strains develop early-stage diabetic retinopathy or sensory neuropathy at different rates. Methods: Sprague Dawley, Lewis, and Wistar rats were made diabetic with streptozotocin. Diabetic and nondiabetic animals had retinal vascular pathology measured at eight months of diabetes. The number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL), retinal function (using electroretinography [ERG]), and retinal levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase2 (COX2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured at four months of diabetes. Tactile allodynia was assessed in hind paws at two months of diabetes. Results: Diabetes of eight months' duration resulted in a significant increase in retinal degenerate capillaries and pericyte ghosts in Lewis and Wistar rats, but not in Sprague Dawley rats. A significant loss of cells in the GCL occurred only in diabetic Lewis rats, whereas Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats showed little change. Diabetes-induced iNOS and VEGF were statistically significant in all strains. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) was significantly elevated in the Sprague Dawley and Wistar strains. Lewis rats showed a similar trend, however, the results were not statistically significant. All strains tended to show diabetes-induced impairment of dark-adapted b-wave amplitude, but only Sprague Dawley and Lewis strains had a significant reduction in latency. All strains showed significant tactile allodynia in peripheral nerves. Conclusions: At the durations studied, Lewis rats showed accelerated loss of both retinal capillaries and ganglion cells in diabetes, whereas diabetic Wistar rats showed degeneration of the capillaries without significant neurodegeneration, and Sprague Dawley rats showed neither lesion. Identification of strains that develop retinal lesions at different rates should be of value in investigating the pathogenesis of retinopathy. © 2010 Molecular Vision.


Immune cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) provide the microenvironment for immune surveillance of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) cells in pelvic lymph nodes. We have hypothesized that degeneration and/or apoptosis of metastatic PCa cells in pelvic lymph nodes can distinguish between aggressive and non-aggressive metastatic disease in patients. Our objective was to define the relationship between metastatic cell lysis and the presence of immune cells.We studied archival primary PCa (n=38) and cancer-positive regional pelvic nodes (n=32) from the same patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy at the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center.Using morphological and immunohistochemical features of immune and metastatic cancer cells, we have identified progression of metastasis in the nodal compartments. Nodal parenchyma contained small, intermediate and large metastatic nodules/tumors. Immune surveillance occurred primarily in small tumors and surveillance was either absent or greatly reduced in intermediate and large tumors in nodes. Metastatic nodules/cells were lysed or became apoptotic when under immune-surveillance, as indicated by pyknotic nuclei and cytoplasm, the latter still had remnants of prostate specific antigen (PSA) staining. Metastatic cells without surveillance did not exhibit morphological features of cell degeneration (lysis) or apoptosis. Metastatic cells under immune-surveillance had an inverse relationship with those without immune-surveillance. This relationship differed from node to node and patient to patient.We have shown that at least two populations of metastatic cells were present in the nodes; the first group of cells was under immune surveillance, as indicated by limited to wide-spread cell lysis/apoptosis, and the second group did not exhibit morphological evidence of cell lysis indicating emergence of surveillance-unresponsive (resistant) metastatic cells. These criteria can be used to distinguish metastatic cancer that is expected to be responsive to immunotherapy from that which would show little or no benefit from such treatment. Enhancement of immune surveillance and other treatments can be used to treat surveillance-unresponsive (resistant) disease to improve survival of patients.

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