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Williams G.R.,Medical University of South Carolina | Bethard J.R.,Medical University of South Carolina | Berkaw M.N.,Medical University of South Carolina | Nagel A.K.,Medical University of South Carolina | And 3 more authors.
Methods | Year: 2016

The type 1 parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) is a key regulator of calcium homeostasis and bone turnover. Here, we employed SILAC-based quantitative mass spectrometry and bioinformatic pathways analysis to examine global changes in protein phosphorylation following short-term stimulation of endogenously expressed PTH1R in osteoblastic cells in vitro. Following 5min exposure to the conventional agonist, PTH(1-34), we detected significant changes in the phosphorylation of 224 distinct proteins. Kinase substrate motif enrichment demonstrated that consensus motifs for PKA and CAMK2 were the most heavily upregulated within the phosphoproteome, while consensus motifs for mitogen-activated protein kinases were strongly downregulated. Signaling pathways analysis identified ERK1/2 and AKT as important nodal kinases in the downstream network and revealed strong regulation of small GTPases involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell motility, and focal adhesion complex signaling. Our data illustrate the utility of quantitative mass spectrometry in measuring dynamic changes in protein phosphorylation following GPCR activation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Appleton K.M.,Medical University of South Carolina | Luttrell L.M.,Medical University of South Carolina | Luttrell L.M.,Research Service Of The Ralph hnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction | Year: 2013

Our growing appreciation of the pluridimensionality of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, combined with the phenomenon of orthosteric ligand "bias", has created the possibility of drugs that selectively modulate different aspects of GPCR function for therapeutic benefit. When viewed from the short-term perspective, e.g. changes in receptor conformation, effector coupling or second messenger generation, biased ligands appear to activate a subset of the response profile produced by a conventional agonist. Yet when examined in vivo, the limited data available suggest that biased ligand effects can diverge from their conventional counterparts in ways that cannot be predicted from their in vitro efficacy profile. What is currently missing, at least with respect to G protein and arrestin pathway-selective ligands, is a rational framework for relating the in vitro efficacy of a "biased" agonist to its in vivo actions that will enable drug screening programs to identify ligands with the desired biological effects. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.


Wilson P.C.,Medical University of South Carolina | Lee M.-H.,Medical University of South Carolina | Appleton K.M.,Medical University of South Carolina | El-Shewy H.M.,Medical University of South Carolina | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

The renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems are key regulators of vascular tone and inflammation. Angiotensin II, the principal effector of the renin-angiotensin system, promotes vasoconstriction by activating angiotensin AT1 receptors. The opposing effects of the kallikrein-kinin system are mediated by bradykinin acting on B1 and B2 bradykinin receptors. The renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems engage in cross-talk at multiple levels, including the formation of AT1-B2 receptor heterodimers. In primary vascular smooth muscle cells, we find that the arrestin pathway-selective AT1 agonist, [Sar 1,Ile4,Ile8]-AngII, but not the neutral AT1 antagonist, losartan, inhibits endogenous B2 receptor signaling. In a transfected HEK293 cell model that recapitulates this effect, we find that the actions of [Sar1,Ile4, Ile8]-AngII require the AT1 receptor and result from arrestin-dependent co-internalization of AT1-B2 heterodimers. BRET50 measurements indicate that AT1 and B2 receptors efficiently heterodimerize. In cells expressing both receptors, pretreatment with [Sar 1,Ile4,Ile8]-AngII blunts B2 receptor activation of Gq/11-dependent intracellular calcium influx and Gi/o-dependent inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. In contrast, [Sar1,Ile 4,Ile8]-AngII has no effect on B2 receptor ligand affinity or bradykinin-induced arrestin3 recruitment. Both radioligand binding assays and quantitative microscopy-based analysis demonstrate that [Sar 1,Ile4,Ile8]-AngII promotes internalization of AT1-B2 heterodimers. Thus, [Sar1,Ile4,Ile 8]-AngII exerts lateral allosteric modulation of B2 receptor signaling by binding to the orthosteric ligand binding site of the AT1 receptor and promoting co-sequestration of AT1-B2 heterodimers. Given the opposing roles of the renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems in vivo, the distinct properties of arrestin pathway-selective and neutral AT1 receptor ligands may translate into different pharmacologic actions.


Luttrell L.M.,Medical University of South Carolina | Luttrell L.M.,Research Service Of The Ralph hnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science | Year: 2013

Our growing appreciation of the pluridimensionality of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) efficacy, coupled with the phenomenon of orthosteric ligand "bias," offers the prospect of drugs that selectively modulate different aspects of GPCR function for therapeutic benefit. As the best-studied non-G protein effectors, arrestins have been shown to mediate a wide range of GPCR signals, and arrestin pathway-selective ligands have been identified for several receptors. When viewed from the perspective of short term in vitro assays, such "biased" agonists appear to activate a subset of the response profile produced by a conventional agonist. Yet, when examined in vivo, the limited data available suggest that biased ligand effects can diverge from their conventional counterparts in ways that cannot be predicted from their in vitro efficacy profile. While some widely conserved arrestin-regulated biological processes are becoming apparent, what is lacking at present is a rational framework for relating the in vitro efficacy of a "biased" agonist to its in vivo actions that will aid drug discovery programs in identifying "biased" ligands with the desired biological effects. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Luttrell L.M.,Medical University of South Carolina | Luttrell L.M.,Research Service Of The Ralph hnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Miller W.E.,University of Cincinnati
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science | Year: 2013

The discovery that, in addition to mediating G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization and endocytosis, arrestins bind to diverse catalytically active nonreceptor proteins and act as ligand-regulated signaling scaffolds led to a paradigm shift in the study of GPCR signal transduction. Research over the past decade has solidified the concept that arrestins confer novel GPCR-signaling capacity by recruiting protein and lipid kinase, phosphatase, phosphodiesterase, and ubiquitin ligase activity into receptor-based multiprotein "signalsome" complexes. Signalsomes regulate downstream pathways controlled by Src family nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase 3, protein phosphatase 2A, nuclear factor-κB, and several others, imposing spatial and temporal control on their function. While many arrestin-bound kinases and phosphatases are involved in the control of cytoskeletal rearrangement, vesicle endocytosis, exocytosis, and cell migration, other signals reach into the nucleus, affecting cell proliferation, apoptosis, and survival. Indeed, the kinase/phosphatase network regulated by arrestins may be fully as diverse as that regulated by heterotrimeric G proteins. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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