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Yin J.,University of Pennsylvania | Dai A.,University of Pennsylvania | LeCureux J.,University of Pennsylvania | Arango T.,University of Pennsylvania | And 9 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Background: Clade C is the predominant HIV-1 strain infecting people in sub-Saharan Africa, India, and China and there is a critical need for a vaccine targeted to these areas. In this study we tested a DNA based vaccine that encodes the SIVgag, SIVpol and HIV-1 envelope clade C. Methods: Rhesus macaques were immunized by electroporation with the DNA plasmid encoding optimized SIVgag, SIVpol and an HIV-1 env clade C with or without the adjuvant RANTES. Animals were monitored for immune responses and challenged following the final immunization with 25 animal infectious doses (AID) of SHIV-1157ipd3N4. Results: We found that the vaccine induced high levels of antigen specific IFN-γ producing effector cells and the capacity for CD4+ and CD8+ to proliferate upon antigen stimulation. Importantly, we found that the vaccine induced antibody titers as high as 1/4000. These antibodies were capable of neutralizing tier 1 HIV-1 viruses. Finally, when macaques were challenged with SHIV, viral loads were controlled in vaccinated groups. Conclusion: We conclude that immunization with a simian/human immunodeficiency virus DNA-based vaccine delivered by electroporation can induce cellular and humoral immune responses that are able to control viral replication. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Lopez-Segovia M.,Research Section | Lopez-Segovia M.,INNOVA Health and Sport Institute | Dellal A.,Tunisian Research Laboratory | Chamari K.,Research Laboratory | Gonzalez-Badillo J.J.,Pablo De Olavide University
Journal of Human Kinetics | Year: 2014

This study examined the relationship between lower body power and repeated as well as single sprint performance in soccer players. The performance of nineteen male soccer players was examined. The first testing session included the countermovement jump (CMJL) and the progressive full squat (FSL), both with external loads. Power in the CMJL and FSL was measured with each load that was lifted. The second session included a protocol of 40-m repeated sprints with a long recovery period (2 min). The number of sprints executed until there was a 3% decrease in performance for the best 40-m sprint time was recorded as a repeated sprint index (RSI). The RSI was moderately associated with power output relative to body mass in the CMJL and FSL (r = 0.53/0.54, pge;0.05). The most and least powerful players (determined by FSL) showed significant differences in the RSI (9.1 ± 4.2 vs. 6.5 ± 1.6) and 10 m sprint time (p < 0.01). Repeated and single sprints are associated with relatively lower body power in soccer players.© Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics.

Gallardo-Mayo C.,Anesthesiology | Garrido-Elustondo S.,Research Section | Calvo-Manuel E.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos de Madrid | Zamorano-Gomez J.L.,Instituto Cardiovascular
European Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2011

Background and Objective Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is associated with cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to identify advanced subclinical atherosclerosis in patients who are at low or intermediate risk. Methods Thousand hundred and eighteen Spanish subjects were prospectively enrolled in an ambulatory screening of cardiovascular risk (CVR). Three hundred and twenty patients aged over 30years with low-intermediate CVR according to European SCORE function underwent carotid ultrasonography. Carotid IMT and plaque assessment were performed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Participants with abnormal CIMT were reclassified to high CVR. Results According to SCORE function, 104 patients (32·5%) were of low CVR and 216 (67·5%) of intermediate CVR. Mean carotid IMT was 0·62±0·13mm, and carotid plaque was found in 35 (10·9%) patients. Carotid ultrasonography changed the risk stratum in 59 (18·4%) patients, who were reclassified to high CVR. Reclassification was more frequent in the intermediate CVR group than in the low CVR group (22·7% vs. 9·6%, P=0·005) and was associated to age (P=0·002), history of arterial hypertension (P<0·001) and increased systolic blood pressure (P=0·05). Conclusions CIMT calculated by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography could become an important tool in preventive medicine. Measuring CIMT may be useful in identifying asymptomatic individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis not detected by the actual CVR functions. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

Lopez-Segovia M.,Research Section | Marques M.C.,University of Beira Interior | Marques M.C.,Research Center for Sport | Van Den Tillaar R.,Research Center for Sport | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Human Kinetics | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between power variables in the vertical jump and full squat with the sprint performance in soccer players. Fourteen under-21 soccer players were evaluated in two testing sessions separated by 7 days. In the first testing session, vertical jump height in countermovement was assessed, and power output for both loaded countermovement jump (CMJL) and full squat (FS) exercises in two progressive load tests. The second testing session included sprinting at 10, 20, and 30m (T10, T20, T30, T10-20, T10-30, T20-30). Power variables obtained in the loaded vertical jump with 20kg and full squat exercise with 70kg showed significant relationships with all split times (r=-0.56/-0.79; p≤ 0.01/0.01). The results suggest that power produced either with vertical jump or full squat exercises is an important factor to explain short sprint performance in soccer players. These findings might suggest that certain levels of neuromuscular activation are more related with sprint performance reflecting the greater suitability of loads against others for the improvement of short sprint ability in under-21 soccer players. © Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics.

Currently most, if not all, antimatter experiments rely on low energy antiproton beams as a means to study the fundamental properties of antimatter. As a result, particle "accelerators" are used in a more unusual way to reduce the energy of, and slow down anti-particles. Once such "decelerator" is currently undergoing construction at the Antimatter Factory at CERN and is due for completion later this year. The Extra Low Energy Antiproton Decelerator (ELENA) ring will provide several experiments with higher intensity and lower energy beams than they have had before – speeding up the process of obtaining answers to fundamental questions about the universe. However, during the deceleration and storage process the beam experiences heating effects, causing the beam to "blow up" in phase space and if unmonitored and ignored, become unusable. Using ELENA as a case study, the paper investigates how cooling instruments such as the electron cooler can counteract these negative effects, and what this will mean for the shape and characteristics of the beam when it reaches the experiments. The paper presents several methods for simulating the beam evolution under these conflicting forces, eventually suggesting the best model and showing the distribution of the beam after the deceleration and cooling process. The paper marks an important step towards understanding how to best control and manipulate some of the more mysterious matter in the universe. Explore further: CERN sets course for extra-low-energy antiprotons More information: J. Resta-López et al. Non-Gaussian beam dynamics in low energy antiproton storage rings, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2016.08.003

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