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Gallardo-Mayo C.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos Of Madrid | Garrido-Elustondo S.,Research Section | Calvo-Manuel E.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos Of Madrid | Zamorano-Gomez J.L.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos Of Madrid
European Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2011

Background and Objective Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is associated with cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to identify advanced subclinical atherosclerosis in patients who are at low or intermediate risk. Methods Thousand hundred and eighteen Spanish subjects were prospectively enrolled in an ambulatory screening of cardiovascular risk (CVR). Three hundred and twenty patients aged over 30years with low-intermediate CVR according to European SCORE function underwent carotid ultrasonography. Carotid IMT and plaque assessment were performed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Participants with abnormal CIMT were reclassified to high CVR. Results According to SCORE function, 104 patients (32·5%) were of low CVR and 216 (67·5%) of intermediate CVR. Mean carotid IMT was 0·62±0·13mm, and carotid plaque was found in 35 (10·9%) patients. Carotid ultrasonography changed the risk stratum in 59 (18·4%) patients, who were reclassified to high CVR. Reclassification was more frequent in the intermediate CVR group than in the low CVR group (22·7% vs. 9·6%, P=0·005) and was associated to age (P=0·002), history of arterial hypertension (P<0·001) and increased systolic blood pressure (P=0·05). Conclusions CIMT calculated by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography could become an important tool in preventive medicine. Measuring CIMT may be useful in identifying asymptomatic individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis not detected by the actual CVR functions. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.


News Article | November 30, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Daejeon, KOREA - Exobrain, a language intelligence software for communicating between human and machine developed by the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), defeated four human champions in a quiz show on EBS Korea. South Korea's Educational Broadcasting System is a children's educational television and radio network. On November 18 Exobrain went "head-to-head" with human competitors on the television quiz show, "Janghak Quiz", which was recorded at the ETRI auditorium. Exobrain outpaced all competitors by scoring 510 out of 600 points, providing correct answers for 25 questions out of 30 (10 multiple-choice and 20 short-answer questions). The Exobrain defeated four human quiz prodigies: Mr. Yun Ju-il (finishing in 2nd place), a freshman of Seoul National University who attained a perfect score in last year's national college entrance exam; Mr. Kim Hyeon-ho and Miss Lee Jeong-min, the champions of the "Janghak Quiz" in the first and second half of 2016, respectively; and Mr. Oh Hyeon-min, who is studying mathematical sciences at KAIST and demonstrated his outstanding intelligence in a televised brain game.  Here's how Exobrain works: once a question is given, the system first derives keywords. For instance, in response to the question: "What is the stone tablet found in Egypt and described in Empire of the Ants, a novel written by Bernard Werber, which enabled communication between humans and ants?", the AI system searches such keywords as Werber, ants, communication, stone tablet and Egypt from its database before filtering tens to hundreds of possible answers. Next, it measures each potential answer against the question, assessing the reliability of each answer and finally submitting the most reliable answer. It only takes six to seven seconds to work out an answer.  In the quiz contest, Exobrain dominated the human competitors, but the system did not get all the answers right. The research team explained that Exobrain made a few wrong answers because some questions were related to fields the system had not learned about yet and the system did not have sufficient data to infer correct answers. The team added that further research and development would be required to conduct a semantic analysis of languages. According to ETRI, the core artificial intelligence (AI) technologies of Exobrain are: Korean language analysis technology, to analyze the grammar rules applied to sentences as its human counterparts can do; knowledge acquisition and exploration technology, to learn and store linguistic knowledge and unit of knowledge (a subject-predicate-object structure) from vast amount of books, documents, Wikipedia articles, dictionaries, and so on; and natural language QA technology, to understand questions comprising multiple sentences and infer answers. The quiz contest was intended to verify the level of first-stage technology developed over the first four years of the 10-year research period. The second and third stages of research are scheduled to be completed by 2022. For phase two, ETRI plans to focus on developing applied technologies and achieving globally competitive performance of QA solutions for expert knowledge including counseling, legal and patent areas. The last phase of the project will focus on developing QA solutions for expert knowledge in both Korean and English so that the AI system can engage in QA activities regarding expert knowledge described in English. In addition, ETRI researchers are committed to developing QA solutions for AI robots and wearable devices that can be utilized with a range of smart devices. Currently, Exobrain shows a level of performance similar to that of Watson, the AI system developed by IBM. In 2011, Watson appeared on the CBS quiz show "Jeopardy!" and defeated human quiz champions. Through further development, this AI system is now supporting the decision-making processes of medical, financial, and legal professionals.  ETRI aims to commercialize Exobrain within the next three years. Exobrain will be used to conduct prior analysis of areas requiring revision of law in partnership with the National Assembly Library, and the AI system is also expected to be used for filtering overlapping technologies in the process of screening patent applications.  "The correct answer rate of Exobrain is 83% on average, which is higher than Watson's performance (70%) in 2011," says Dr. Dong Won Han, Vice President of ETRI, SW and Contents Research Laboratory. "Considering that Exobrain was originally developed for the Korean language, it will have further potential uses when it is upgraded."  About ETRI Established in 1976, ETRI is a non-profit Korean government-funded research organization that has been at the forefront of technological excellence for about 40 years. In the 1980s, ETRI developed TDX (Time Division Exchange) and 4M DRAM. In the 1990s, ETRI commercialized CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) for the first time in the world. In the 2000s, ETRI developed Terrestrial DMB, WiBro, and 4G LTE Advanced, which became the foundation of mobile communications. Recently, as a global ICT leader, ETRI has been advancing communication and convergence by developing SAN (Ship Area Network) technology, Genie Talk (world class portable automatic interpretation; Korean-English/Japanese/Chinese), and automated valet parking technology. As of 2016, ETRI has about 2,000 employees where about 1,800 of them are researchers. For more informatoin, please visit https://www.etri.re.kr/eng/main/main.etri For more information, please contact Dr. Hyun-ki Kim Director, Knowledge Mining Research Section, ETRI e-mail: [email protected] phone: +82 42 860 5965 Press release distributed by ResearchSEA on behalf of ETRI.


News Article | November 30, 2016
Site: www.acnnewswire.com

- Scholarship quiz show, called "Janghak Quiz", on the major educational television network in Korea - AI solutions to be developed for legal, patent and counseling areas Exobrain, a language intelligence software for communicating between human and machine developed by the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), defeated four human champions in a quiz show on EBS Korea. South Korea's Educational Broadcasting System is a children's educational television and radio network. On November 18 Exobrain went "head-to-head" with human competitors on the television quiz show, "Janghak Quiz", which was recorded at the ETRI auditorium. Exobrain outpaced all competitors by scoring 510 out of 600 points, providing correct answers for 25 questions out of 30 (10 multiple-choice and 20 short-answer questions). The Exobrain defeated four human quiz prodigies: Mr. Yun Ju-il (finishing in 2nd place), a freshman of Seoul National University who attained a perfect score in last year's national college entrance exam; Mr. Kim Hyeon-ho and Miss Lee Jeong-min, the champions of the "Janghak Quiz" in the first and second half of 2016, respectively; and Mr. Oh Hyeon-min, who is studying mathematical sciences at KAIST and demonstrated his outstanding intelligence in a televised brain game. Here's how Exobrain works: once a question is given, the system first derives keywords. For instance, in response to the question: "What is the stone tablet found in Egypt and described in Empire of the Ants, a novel written by Bernard Werber, which enabled communication between humans and ants?", the AI system searches such keywords as Werber, ants, communication, stone tablet and Egypt from its database before filtering tens to hundreds of possible answers. Next, it measures each potential answer against the question, assessing the reliability of each answer and finally submitting the most reliable answer. It only takes six to seven seconds to work out an answer. In the quiz contest, Exobrain dominated the human competitors, but the system did not get all the answers right. The research team explained that Exobrain made a few wrong answers because some questions were related to fields the system had not learned about yet and the system did not have sufficient data to infer correct answers. The team added that further research and development would be required to conduct a semantic analysis of languages. According to ETRI, the core artificial intelligence (AI) technologies of Exobrain are: Korean language analysis technology, to analyze the grammar rules applied to sentences as its human counterparts can do; knowledge acquisition and exploration technology, to learn and store linguistic knowledge and unit of knowledge (a subject-predicate-object structure) from vast amount of books, documents, Wikipedia articles, dictionaries, and so on; and natural language QA technology, to understand questions comprising multiple sentences and infer answers. The quiz contest was intended to verify the level of first-stage technology developed over the first four years of the 10-year research period. The second and third stages of research are scheduled to be completed by 2022. For phase two, ETRI plans to focus on developing applied technologies and achieving globally competitive performance of QA solutions for expert knowledge including counseling, legal and patent areas. The last phase of the project will focus on developing QA solutions for expert knowledge in both Korean and English so that the AI system can engage in QA activities regarding expert knowledge described in English. In addition, ETRI researchers are committed to developing QA solutions for AI robots and wearable devices that can be utilized with a range of smart devices. Currently, Exobrain shows a level of performance similar to that of Watson, the AI system developed by IBM. In 2011, Watson appeared on the CBS quiz show "Jeopardy!" and defeated human quiz champions. Through further development, this AI system is now supporting the decision-making processes of medical, financial, and legal professionals. ETRI aims to commercialize Exobrain within the next three years. Exobrain will be used to conduct prior analysis of areas requiring revision of law in partnership with the National Assembly Library, and the AI system is also expected to be used for filtering overlapping technologies in the process of screening patent applications. "The correct answer rate of Exobrain is 83% on average, which is higher than Watson's performance (70%) in 2011," says Dr. Dong Won Han, Vice President of ETRI, SW and Contents Research Laboratory. "Considering that Exobrain was originally developed for the Korean language, it will have further potential uses when it is upgraded." About ETRI Established in 1976, ETRI is a non-profit Korean government-funded research organization that has been at the forefront of technological excellence for about 40 years. In the 1980s, ETRI developed TDX (Time Division Exchange) and 4M DRAM. In the 1990s, ETRI commercialized CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) for the first time in the world. In the 2000s, ETRI developed Terrestrial DMB, WiBro, and 4G LTE Advanced, which became the foundation of mobile communications. Recently, as a global ICT leader, ETRI has been advancing communication and convergence by developing SAN (Ship Area Network) technology, Genie Talk (world class portable automatic interpretation; Korean-English/Japanese/Chinese), and automated valet parking technology. As of 2016, ETRI has about 2,000 employees where about 1,800 of them are researchers. For more informatoin, please visit https://www.etri.re.kr/eng/main/main.etri For more information, please contact Dr. Hyun-ki Kim Director, Knowledge Mining Research Section, ETRI e-mail: phone: +82 42 860 5965 Press release distributed by ResearchSEA on behalf of ETRI. Topic: Research and development Sectors: Electronics, IT Individual, Science & Research http://www.acnnewswire.com From the Asia Corporate News Network


BASEL, Switzerland and WATERTOWN, Mass., Feb. 16, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Lonza Houston, Inc., a global leader in viral gene and cell therapy manufacturing, and Selecta Biosciences, Inc. (NASDAQ:SELB), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing biologic therapies for rare and serious diseases that avoid unwanted immunogenicity, have entered into a strategic manufacturing agreement. Under the terms of the agreement, Lonza will produce an Anc80-AAV-based gene therapy product for Selecta’s proprietary program for the treatment of Methylmalonic Acidemia (MMA), a rare inborn error of metabolism, and may in the future produce other Anc80-based products for which Selecta holds exclusive options. This relationship will leverage Lonza’s expertise in the development of robust and industry-scale manufacturing platforms for viral-based products.  Data shows that Anc80-AAV, an in silico-designed synthetic gene therapy vector, has the potential to provide superior gene expression levels in retina, liver, muscle, cochlea’s outer hair cells and other tissue targets in preclinical studies, as well as reduced cross-reactivity as compared to naturally occurring adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) that are currently in clinical development. “This agreement with Selecta Biosciences continues to demonstrate Lonza’s leadership position in the cell and gene therapy space,” said Andreas Weiler, Ph.D., Head of Emerging Technologies Business Unit for Lonza’s Pharma&Biotech segment. “Lonza will utilize our extensive cGMP manufacturing knowledge and world-class quality systems to help Selecta Biosciences develop promising novel therapeutics for patients impacted by MMA and other devastating diseases.” “We at Selecta are focused on combining novel and proprietary viral vectors with our immune tolerance Synthetic Vaccine Particles (SVP™) to enable the first non-immunogenic gene therapies, providing the potential for repeat dosing,” said Werner Cautreels, Ph.D., Selecta’s president, CEO and chairman. “We view Lonza – one of the industry’s largest contract manufacturers of biologics and a leading supplier in gene therapy – as an ideal partner. They already have invested in developing various expression technologies, and they share our excitement about Anc80. We look forward to working with them to bring the first Anc80-based program into the clinic as a potential treatment for patients afflicted with MMA.” MMA is an inborn error of metabolism that, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), affects an estimated one in 25,000 to 48,000 individuals globally. MMA patients are unable to process certain proteins and fats, leading to the accumulation of toxic metabolites. Symptoms start to develop in early childhood and, despite strict diet, patients suffer from a wide range of disease-related complications such as pancreatitis, strokes and chronic kidney failure. Selecta exclusively licensed Anc80 for MMA from Massachusetts Eye and Ear® (MEE) in May 2016. Under the license agreement, Selecta also has the exclusive option to develop gene therapies using Anc80 for additional pre-defined lysosomal storage, genetic muscular and genetic metabolic diseases. Selecta intends to combine Anc80 with recently discovered transgenes and Selecta’s SVP-Rapamycin to create a novel gene therapy candidate for MMA. This candidate is intended to a) enable the treatment of patients with and without pre-existing anti-AAV antibodies; b) prevent cellular immune responses that often reduce the expression levels of gene therapies; and c) provide the ability to administer repeat gene therapy doses to achieve sufficient levels of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT), the enzyme that MMA patients are lacking. To advance the MMA program, Selecta entered into a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with MEE and the National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, in 2016. Principal investigators in this CRADA initiative are Charles Venditti, MD, PhD, Senior Investigator and Head, Organic Acid Research Section, Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch and Luk Vandenberghe, PhD, Director of the Grousbeck Gene Therapy Center at MEE and an Assistant Professor at Harvard Medical School. A physician-scientist specializing in the study of inborn errors of metabolism including MMA, Dr. Venditti and his group have published several studies showing the effectiveness of gene therapy as a treatment for MMA in mice. Dr. Vandenberghe from MEE is the inventor of Anc80. Lonza is one of the world’s leading and most-trusted suppliers to the pharmaceutical, biotech and specialty ingredients markets. It harnesses science and technology to create products that support safer and healthier living and that enhance the overall quality of life. Not only is Lonza a custom manufacturer and developer, the company also offers services and products ranging from active pharmaceutical ingredients to drinking water sanitizers, from nutritional and personal care ingredients to agricultural products, and from industrial preservatives to microbial control solutions that combat dangerous viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. Founded in 1897 in the Swiss Alps, Lonza today is a well-respected global company with approximately 40 major manufacturing and R&D facilities and more than 10,000 full-time employees worldwide. The company generated sales of CHF 4.13 billion in 2016 and is organized into two market-focused segments: Pharma&Biotech and Specialty Ingredients. Further information can be found at www.lonza.com. Selecta Biosciences, Inc. is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing biologic therapies for rare and serious diseases that avoid the immune responses that compromise efficacy and lead to life-threatening complications. Selecta is applying its proprietary Synthetic Vaccine Particles (SVP™) to a range of therapeutic areas in which immunogenicity is a key challenge. SEL-212, the company’s lead candidate in Phase 2, is being developed to treat chronic refractory gout patients and reduce their debilitating symptoms, including flares and inflammatory arthritis. Further, Selecta’s two proprietary gene therapy product candidates have the unique potential to enable repeat administration, allowing for dose adjustment in patients and maintenance of therapeutic activity over time. The company is seeking to expand the use of its SVP platform in other areas, such as immuno-oncology, allergies, autoimmune diseases and vaccines. Selecta is based in Watertown, Massachusetts. For more information, please visit http://selectabio.com. Additional Lonza Information and Disclaimer Lonza Group Ltd has its headquarters in Basel, Switzerland, and is listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange. It has a secondary listing on the Singapore Exchange Securities Trading Limited (“SGX-ST”). Lonza Group Ltd is not subject to the SGX-ST’s continuing listing requirements but remains subject to Rules 217 and 751 of the SGX-ST Listing Manual. Certain matters discussed in this news release may constitute forward-looking statements. These statements are based on current expectations and estimates of Lonza Group Ltd, although Lonza Group Ltd can give no assurance that these expectations and estimates will be achieved. Investors are cautioned that all forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainty and are qualified in their entirety. The actual results may differ materially in the future from the forward-looking statements included in this presentation due to various factors. Furthermore, except as otherwise required by law, Lonza Group Ltd disclaims any intention or obligation to update the statements contained in this release. Selecta Biosciences, Inc. Disclaimer Any statements in this press release about the future expectations, plans and prospects of Selecta Biosciences, Inc. (“the company”), including without limitation, statements regarding the development of its pipeline, the ability of the company’s SVP platform, including SVP-Rapamycin, to mitigate immune response and create better therapeutic outcomes, the potential treatment applications for products utilizing the SVP platform in areas such as gene therapy, immuno-oncology, allergies, autoimmune diseases and vaccines, whether the company’s proprietary gene therapy product candidates will enable repeat administration, allow for dose adjustment in patients or maintain therapeutic activity over time, the sufficiency of the company’s cash, cash equivalents, investments, and restricted cash and other statements containing the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “hypothesize,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would,” and similar expressions, constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Actual results may differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements as a result of various important factors, including, but not limited to, the following: the uncertainties inherent in the initiation, completion and cost of clinical trials including their uncertain outcomes, the unproven approach of the company’s SVP technology, undesirable side effects of the company’s product candidates, its reliance on third parties to manufacture its product candidates and to conduct its clinical trials, the company’s inability to maintain its existing or future collaborations, licenses or contractual relationships, its inability to protect its proprietary technology and intellectual property, potential delays in regulatory approvals, the availability of funding sufficient for its foreseeable and unforeseeable operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements, substantial fluctuation in the price of its common stock, a significant portion of the company’s total outstanding shares have recently become eligible to be sold into the market, and other important factors discussed in the “Risk Factors” section of the company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, on November 10, 2016, and in other filings that the company makes with the SEC. In addition, any forward-looking statements included in this press release represent the company’s views only as of the date of its publication and should not be relied upon as representing its views as of any subsequent date. The company specifically disclaims any obligation to update any forward-looking statements included in this press release.


Maita N.,Tokushima University | Tsukimura T.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University | Taniguchi T.,Tokushima University | Saito S.,Hokkaido Information University | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

N-glycosylation is a major posttranslational modification that endows proteins with various functions. It is established that N-glycans are essential for the correct folding and stability of some enzymes; however, the actual effects of N-glycans on their activities are poorly understood. Here, we show that human α-L-iduronidase (hIDUA), of which a dysfunction causes accumulation of dermatan/heparan sulfate leading to mucopolysaccharidosis type I, uses its own N-glycan as a substrate binding and catalytic module. Structural analysis revealed that the mannose residue of the N-glycan attached to N372 constituted a part of the substrate-binding pocket and interacted directly with a substrate. A deglycosylation study showed that enzyme activity was highly correlated with the N-glycan attached to N372. The kinetics of native and deglycosylated hIDUA suggested that the N-glycan is also involved in catalytic processes. Our study demonstrates a previously unrecognized function of N-glycans.


PubMed | Catholic University of Mozambique, Research Section and University of Bari
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH | Year: 2016

This review outlines the association between tuberculosis and diabetes, focusing on epidemiology, physiopathology, clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment, and evaluates future perspectives, with particular attention to developing countries.


Diegoli T.M.,Research Section | Coble M.D.,Research Section
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

This study presents the development and characterization of two X chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) multiplexes utilizing reduced-size amplicons (less than 200 base pairs) for identity and kinship testing with degraded DNA. Approximately 1360 samples across 4 U.S. population groups were typed for 15 X chromosomal STR markers: DXS6789, DXS7130, DXS9902, GATA31E08, DXS7424, GATA165B12, DXS101, DXS6795, GATA172D05, DXS10147, DXS8378, DXS7132, DXS6803, HPRTB, and DXS7423. A high degree of polymorphism was observed for each marker and both multiplexes were sensitive down to 200 pg of pristine DNA. The two proposed multiplexes are suitable for forensic use, and show potential for improved analysis of compromised bone samples. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Lopez-Segovia M.,Research Section | Lopez-Segovia M.,INNOVA Health and Sport Institute | Dellal A.,Tunisian Research Laboratory | Chamari K.,Research Laboratory | Gonzalez-Badillo J.J.,Pablo De Olavide University
Journal of Human Kinetics | Year: 2014

This study examined the relationship between lower body power and repeated as well as single sprint performance in soccer players. The performance of nineteen male soccer players was examined. The first testing session included the countermovement jump (CMJL) and the progressive full squat (FSL), both with external loads. Power in the CMJL and FSL was measured with each load that was lifted. The second session included a protocol of 40-m repeated sprints with a long recovery period (2 min). The number of sprints executed until there was a 3% decrease in performance for the best 40-m sprint time was recorded as a repeated sprint index (RSI). The RSI was moderately associated with power output relative to body mass in the CMJL and FSL (r = 0.53/0.54, pge;0.05). The most and least powerful players (determined by FSL) showed significant differences in the RSI (9.1 ± 4.2 vs. 6.5 ± 1.6) and 10 m sprint time (p < 0.01). Repeated and single sprints are associated with relatively lower body power in soccer players.© Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics.


Lao O.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Vallone P.M.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Coble M.D.,Research Section | Diegoli T.M.,Research Section | And 5 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2010

The current U.S. population represents an amalgam of individuals originating mainly from four continental regions (Africa, Europe, Asia and America). To study the genetic ancestry and compare with self-declared ancestry we have analyzed paternally, maternally and bi-parentally inherited DNA markers sensitive for indicating continental genetic ancestry in all four major U.S. American groups. We found that self-declared U.S. Hispanics and U.S. African Americans tend to show variable degrees of continental genetic admixture among the three genetic systems, with evidence for a marked sex-biased admixture history. Moreover, for these two groups we observed significant regional variation across the country in genetic admixture. In contrast, self-declared U.S. European and U.S. Asian Americans were genetically more homogeneous at the continental ancestry level. Two autosomal ancestry-sensitive markers located in skin pigmentation candidate genes showed significant differences in self-declared U.S. African Americans or U.S. European Americans, relative to their assumed parental populations from Africa or Europe. This provides genetic support for the importance of skin color in the complex process of ancestry identification. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


News Article | January 6, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Reported research across the biomedical sciences rarely provides full protocol, data, and necessary level of transparency to verify or replicate the study, according to two articles publishing in PLOS Biology as part of a new Meta-Research Section, on Jan. 4, 2016. The authors argue that the information publicly available on reported research is in dire need of improvement.

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