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WHEATON, IL--(Marketwired - December 21, 2016) - Elkhorn Investments, LLC, a pioneer of research-based investing, announced today the listing of the BMO Elkhorn DWA MLP Select™ Index ETN ( : BMLP) the first tactical momentum exchange-traded note (ETN) providing exposure to the master limited partnership (MLP) space. BMLP incorporates Dorsey Wright & Associates', a Nasdaq Company, proprietary Relative Strength methodology by tracking the DWA MLP Select™ Index. "MLPs have long been used for their high income potential. We believe Dorsey Wright's research can help investors select MLPs with high capital appreciation potential and high income, creating a more comprehensive approach to MLP investing," said Ben Fulton, Founder and CEO of Elkhorn. "Additionally, we believe the ETN is the ideal structure for this strategy given the negative tax implications of MLP ETFs." The DWA MLP Select™ Index evaluates a universe of U.S. MLPs, screened for capacity and liquidity, and provides equal-weighted exposure to the 15 MLPs exhibiting the highest relative strength. "Having a tactical approach to MLP investing can help investors be better prepared for uncertain markets," said Tom Dorsey, Founder of Dorsey Wright. "Rather than own the entire MLP universe, the DWA MLP Select™ Index invests in only the highest relative strength MLPs." This is the first ETN launched by the Bank of Montreal. The ETN will trade under the ticker BMLP on the Nasdaq Global Market and will have an expense ratio of 0.85%. The DWA MLP Select Index has a current yield of 7.42% as of Nov. 30, 2016. The Dorsey Wright MLP Select Index has outperformed the Alerian MLP Index YTD by 16% through Nov. 30, 2016†. About Elkhorn Founded in 2013 by Ben Fulton, a recognized leader and pioneer of the ETF industry, Elkhorn is redefining the relationship between investment strategy and product structure: designing, sponsoring and distributing innovative, research-based investments solutions. At Elkhorn, research drives design and advisors drive structural decisions. Elkhorn has a strategic relationship with Barclays which has increased the capacity of investment solutions offered by Elkhorn. To learn more about Elkhorn please visit www.elkhorn.com. About BMO Financial Group Established in 1817, and currently marking its 200th year of operations, BMO Financial Group is a highly diversified financial services provider based in North America. With total assets of $688 billion as of October 31, 2016, and more than 45,000 employees, BMO provides a broad range of personal and commercial banking, wealth management and investment banking products and services to more than 12 million customers and conducts business through three operating groups: Personal and Commercial Banking, Wealth Management and BMO Capital Markets. Dorsey, Wright & Associates (DWA), a Nasdaq Company, is a registered investment advisory firm based in Richmond, Virginia. DWA was acquired by Nasdaq last year and the combined group represents one of the largest providers of smart beta indexes with nearly $52.4 billion in assets tracking Nasdaq Indexes. DWA and Nasdaq develop innovative products across myriad asset classes and help create more opportunities for financial advisors. Since 1987, DWA has been an advisor to financial professionals on Wall Street and investment managers worldwide. The company offers comprehensive investment research and analysis through the DWA Research Platform and provides research, modeling, and indexes which apply DWA's expertise in Relative Strength to various financial products including exchange trade funds, mutual funds, UITs, structured products, and separately managed accounts. To take a free trial please visit www.dorseywright.com IMPORTANT RISK INFORMATION An investment in the BMO Elkhorn DWA MLP Select™ Index Exchange Traded Notes described herein (the "ETNs") involves risks. Selected risks are summarized here, but we urge you to read the more detailed explanation of risks described under "Risk Factors" in the Bank of Montreal prospectus dated June 27, 2014, prospectus supplement dated June 27, 2014 and pricing supplement dated December 19, 2016. Uncertain Principal Repayment - You may receive less than the principal amount of your ETNs at maturity, call or upon redemption. If the level of the Index decreases, or does not increase, by an amount equal to the percentage of the principal amount represented by the Accrued Tracking Fee and the Redemption Fee, if applicable, you will receive less, and possibly significantly less, than your original investment in the ETNs. Credit Risk of Bank of Montreal - The ETNs are unsecured debt obligations of the issuer, Bank of Montreal, and are not, either directly or indirectly, an obligation of or guaranteed by any third party. Any payments you are entitled to receive on your ETNs, including any payment at maturity, call or redemption, are subject to our ability to pay our obligations as they come due. As a result, the actual and perceived creditworthiness of Bank of Montreal will affect the market value, if any, of the ETNs prior to maturity, call or redemption. In addition, in the event that Bank of Montreal were to default on its obligations, you may not receive any amounts owed to you under the terms of the ETNs. No Fixed Interest Payments - You will not receive any fixed periodic interest payments on the ETNs, and your quarterly Coupon Payments are uncertain and could be zero. A Trading Market for the ETNs May Not Continue Over the Term of the ETNs - The ETNs are listed on Nasdaq under the symbol "BMLP". However, a trading market for your ETNs may not continue for the term of the ETNs. We are not required to maintain any listing of the ETNs on Nasdaq or any other exchange or quotation system. The intraday indicative value and the closing indicative value are not the same as the closing price or any other trading price of the ETNs in the secondary market - The closing indicative value will be published on each Index Business Day under the Bloomberg ticker symbol BMLPIV . The intraday indicative value of the ETNs is based on the most recent intraday level of the Index and will be calculated and published every 15 seconds on each Index Business Day during normal trading hours under the Bloomberg ticker symbol BMLPIV and will be disseminated over the consolidated tape, or other major market vendor. The trading price of the ETNs at any time is the price at which you may be able to sell your ETNs in the secondary market at such time, if one exists. The trading price of the ETNs at any time may vary significantly from their intraday indicative value at such time. Paying a premium purchase price over the intraday indicative value of the ETNs could lead to significant losses in the event one sells the ETNs at a time when that premium is no longer present in the market place or the ETNs are called - Paying a premium purchase price over the intraday indicative value of the ETNs could lead to significant losses in the event one sells the ETNs at a time when such premium is no longer present in the market place or the notes are called, in which case investors will receive a cash payment in an amount based on the index closing levels of the notes during the call measurement period. The Index has a limited performance history - The DWA MLP Select™ Index was launched on May 1, 2015, and therefore has no performance history prior to that date. Consequently, little or no historical information will be available for you to consider in making an independent investigation of the DWA MLP Select™ Index's performance, which may make it difficult for you to make an informed decision with respect to an investment in the ETNs. Call Feature - Your ETNs may be repurchased on or after June 22, 2017 at our option and without your consent. In the event that we call the ETNs, the call settlement amount may be significantly less than the stated principal amount of the ETNs or the price at which you purchased your ETNs. Restrictions on Repurchases by Us - You must offer the applicable minimum redemption amount of $2,500,000 (50,000 ETNs) to us for your offer for redemption to be considered. Tax Treatment - Significant aspects of the tax treatment of the ETNs are uncertain and may be less favorable than a direct investment in MLPs. You should consult with your own tax advisor about your own tax situation. Bank of Montreal, and its affiliates, and Elkhorn Investments do not provide tax advice, and nothing contained herein should be construed as tax advice. Please be advised that any discussion of U.S. tax matters contained herein (including any attachments): (i) is not intended or written to be used, and cannot be used, by you for the purpose of avoiding U.S. tax-related penalties, and (ii) was written to support the promotion of marketing of the transactions or other matters addressed herein. Accordingly, you should seek advice based on your particular circumstances from your independent tax advisor. Bank of Montreal, the issuer of the ETNs, has filed a registration statement (including a pricing supplement, prospectus supplement and prospectus) with the SEC about the offering to which this free writing prospectus relates. Before you invest, you should read those documents and the other documents relating to this offering that Bank of Montreal has filed with the SEC for more complete information about Bank of Montreal and this offering. You may obtain these documents without cost by visiting EDGAR on the SEC Website at www.sec.gov. Alternatively, Bank of Montreal, any agent or any dealer participating in this offering will arrange to send you the pricing supplement, the prospectus supplement and the prospectus if you so request by calling toll-free at 1-877-369-5412. There are risks involved with investing in ETNs, including possible loss of principal. The ETN's return may not match the return of its Index. This ETN is new and has a limited operating history. The Alerian MLP Index is the leading gauge of energy Master Limited Partnerships (MLPs) and is a float-adjusted, capitalization-weighted index, whose constituents represent approximately 85% of total float-adjusted market capitalization. One cannot invest directly in an index. Elkhorn Securities, LLC is the Marketing Intermediary for ETNs offered by the Bank of Montreal. An investor should consider the investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses of the ETN carefully before investing. To obtain a prospectus containing this and other information, please call 1-877-369-5412. Read the prospectus carefully before you invest. Member FINRA, SIPC NOT FDIC INSURED / NOT BANK GUARANTEED / MAY LOSE VALUE


Costantino F.,University of Paris Descartes | Costantino F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Talpin A.,University of Paris Descartes | Talpin A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 18 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of spondyloarthritis (SpA) in reference to HLA-B27 in the French population. Methods: In 1989, 20 625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company aged 35-50 years were enrolled in the GAZEL cohort. In 2010, 18 757 still active participants were screened by a questionnaire validated for the detection of SpA. Responders with available DNA were retained for further studies. Pelvic radiograph and HLA-B27 typing were performed in all the self-reported cases of SpA or psoriatic arthritis. Self-reported diagnosis was verified by a qualified rheumatologist. HLA-B27 determination was also performed in subjects without any SpA feature. Results: The target population consisted of 6556 responders with available DNA. Their male:female ratio was 3.6 and their mean age was 65.5±3.3 years. A diagnosis of SpA was confirmed in 32 of the 72 self-reported cases, 75% of them being HLA-B27 positive. Estimated SpA prevalence adjusted for sex was 0.43% (95% CI 0.26% to 0.70%). HLA-B27 positivity rate in 2466 healthy controls was 6.9% (95% CI 5.9% to 7.9%). The relative risk of SpA in HLA-B27 positive individuals was 39 (95% CI 17 to 86). Conclusions: We estimated the prevalence of SpA in the French population in 2010 to 0.43%. With an estimated prevalence of 75.0% in SpA and 6.9% in healthy controls, HLA-B27 increased the disease risk 39-fold, as compared with HLA-B27 negative subjects. © 2013 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & European League Against Rheumatism.


News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: marketersmedia.com

Feedback From Users Managing Hundreds of Billions in AUM Driving Significant Updates to Research Platform NEW YORK, NY / ACCESSWIRE / December 13, 2016 / MackeyRMS today unveiled major enhancements to its research management software (RMS) through an updated user interface and overall enhanced user experience. Over the last five years, MackeyRMS has seen tremendous client growth, with hedge funds increasingly adopting its platform to meet their research management needs in an increasingly digital and mobile world. Mackey has consistently made updates to its platform based on feedback from clients as the company works in partnership with hedge funds and asset managers to meet their firm and individual needs. The latest updates cater to client needs, where ease of use and mobility are top priorities when it comes to enterprise grade systems. "We have always prided ourselves on having best-in-class automation and mobility functions," said Chris Mackey, Founder & CEO of Mackey. "This recent set of updates reflects our commitment to removing unnecessary steps from the research process, making it drastically more efficient and simple - ultimately allowing investment professionals to focus on finding the right investments." The re-imagined MackeyRMS platform brings best-in-class usability, automation and mobility, allowing clients quicker and easier access to both external and proprietary research content. The new enhancements will allow clients to more efficiently multi-task through the system. Additional enhancements include a powerful new search engine, overhauled note-taking, file sharing and reporting features. MackeyRMS ™ is a leading SaaS-based research management software optimized for investment professionals. Highly automated and ultra-portable, MackeyRMS works with users' existing devices and applications to seamlessly aggregate and organize both external and proprietary research content. For more information, please visit: www.mackeyrms.com. Feedback From Users Managing Hundreds of Billions in AUM Driving Significant Updates to Research Platform NEW YORK, NY / ACCESSWIRE / December 13, 2016 / MackeyRMS today unveiled major enhancements to its research management software (RMS) through an updated user interface and overall enhanced user experience. Over the last five years, MackeyRMS has seen tremendous client growth, with hedge funds increasingly adopting its platform to meet their research management needs in an increasingly digital and mobile world. Mackey has consistently made updates to its platform based on feedback from clients as the company works in partnership with hedge funds and asset managers to meet their firm and individual needs. The latest updates cater to client needs, where ease of use and mobility are top priorities when it comes to enterprise grade systems. "We have always prided ourselves on having best-in-class automation and mobility functions," said Chris Mackey, Founder & CEO of Mackey. "This recent set of updates reflects our commitment to removing unnecessary steps from the research process, making it drastically more efficient and simple - ultimately allowing investment professionals to focus on finding the right investments." The re-imagined MackeyRMS platform brings best-in-class usability, automation and mobility, allowing clients quicker and easier access to both external and proprietary research content. The new enhancements will allow clients to more efficiently multi-task through the system. Additional enhancements include a powerful new search engine, overhauled note-taking, file sharing and reporting features. MackeyRMS ™ is a leading SaaS-based research management software optimized for investment professionals. Highly automated and ultra-portable, MackeyRMS works with users' existing devices and applications to seamlessly aggregate and organize both external and proprietary research content. For more information, please visit: www.mackeyrms.com.


News Article | August 22, 2016
Site: www.spie.org

Geodetic discovery of a new magma body beneath New Zealand Magma plays a fundamental role in the formation of new crust on Earth. Along mid-ocean ridge systems, for example, the build-up of stress (caused by the separation of tectonic plates) is relieved through the injection of vertical sheets of magma (known as dikes) during rifting episodes. In addition, at arc and back-arc settings—where subduction of oceanic lithosphere gives rise to magmatism and volcanism—the accumulation of magma helps build new continental crust. In most cases the magma remains at depth, where it eventually cools to form new rock. In rare occasions, however, the material may erupt in very large caldera-forming events or in supereruptions (i.e., when more than 1000km3 of material may be expelled).1 Although rifting episodes and the emplacement of magma beneath oceanic spreading centers is relatively well constrained,2, 3 there are only a few regions in arc and back-arc settings where significant volumes of magma are produced. It is therefore difficult to study the complex interactions between volcanism, tectonics, and magmatism in these settings. Geophysicists can employ a number of techniques to study the geometry, location, and volume of magma being intruded into the Earth's crust. As a result of such intrusions, the surrounding rocks deform and cause small displacements of the ground surface. Geodetic observations, such as from global positioning system (GPS) and satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) measurements, can be used to quantify these displacements. The deformation may also be accompanied by changes in the magnitude and frequency of earthquakes that can be detected by seismology. Furthermore, magnetotelluric (MT) techniques can be used to image the electrically conductive magma bodies. In this study,4 we present geodetic and seismological data from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), in New Zealand's North Island, and provide evidence of a new magma body below the surface. The TVZ (see Figure 1) is an active continental rift and arguably the world's most productive region of silicic volcanism.5 Along the TVZ, conductive bodies—imaged at depths of about 6–10km—are thought to be zones of interconnected melt.6 These observations are consistent with geodetic measurements that show widespread subsidence, and which suggest the cooling and contraction of magma within the shallow crust.7 At the northern end of the subaerial TVZ (in the Bay of Plenty region), swarms of earthquakes (see Figure 1) have been detected since the 1970s. The cause of these earthquake swarms, however, has remained largely unresolved. With the use of InSAR and GPS data to measure the surface deformation across the northern TVZ, we have detected an ∼300km2 region of uplift on the edge of the currently active volcanic zone. Both our InSAR and GPS measurements show that the region was undergoing uplift at a rate of about 10mm/year between 2004 and 2011 (see Figure 1). Despite the swarms of earthquakes in the region, the pattern of deformation points toward a magmatic, rather than a tectonic, origin. We have also used a simple elastic model to represent an inflating body of magma and thus determine the source geometry and volume of the detected body. We found that our observations are best explained by the inflation of a horizontal, about 20 × 25km, magmatic body at a depth of 9.5km.4 We also estimate that between 2004 and 2011, 0.06km3 (i.e., 60,000,000m3) of new material was injected into the crust beneath the Bay of Plenty (see Figure 2). Measurements from leveling lines (placed across the region between the 1950s and 1970s), and from other historical geologic data, also provide evidence that the region may have been undergoing uplift for up to about 1700 years. The inflation rate that we have observed during the 2000s, however, is more than double the long-term average. It is unclear whether this was caused by an isolated increase in the melt supply or whether the supply rate has varied with time. The repeated swarms of earthquakes detected in the area seem to indicate the latter option. In fact, a large, well-recorded earthquake swarm (which occurred between 2005 and 2009) was coincident with the observed increase in inflation rate. Our results thus provide evidence that the frequent earthquake swarms in the region occur in response to periodic increases in the magma supply from depth (see Figure 2). In summary, we have used InSAR and GPS data to study the active Taupo Volcanic Zone beneath New Zealand's North Island. Although the ultimate fate of the magma in this region (which contains one of Earth's supervolcanoes) remains unknown, our results provide evidence for the birth of a new magma chamber. In the coming years we hope to expand our investigation with a focused deployment of GPS, MT sensors, and seismometers so that we can probe the size and eruptability of this magma body. We thank the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency for access to the Advanced Land Observing Satellite data (through project RA4-1093), the European Space Agency for access to the Envisat data (under project C1P-14029), and GeoNet for the continuous GPS data. This work was supported by public research funding from the Government of New Zealand, with additional support from the New Zealand Natural Hazards Research Platform (under grant 2015-GNS-02-NHRP) and Land Information New Zealand.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

LexisNexis® today announced that it won a 2016 Search Industry Award in the “Best Search Project” category for Search Term Maps—an innovative, patent-pending search tool found within the online legal information solution Lexis Advance®. The award honors Search Term Maps as an accumulation of years of research into how legal professionals glean information from documents within query results. The Search Industry Awards, presented by The Information Retrieval Specialist Group of the British Computer Society (BCS), celebrate the best search innovations of the year by recognizing people, projects, and companies that have excelled in the design of search and information retrieval products and services. “The 2016 Best Search Project award for Search Term Maps validates the LexisNexis investment of time and resources into creating next generation technologies that power the data-driven lawyers of today and tomorrow,” said Jeff Pfeifer, vice president of product management for the North American Research Solutions business at LexisNexis. “We are honored to receive this recognition of our dedication to innovation and customer-centric product development, demonstrating not only the value of our tool, but also how that value is recognized outside the legal space.” Launched in 2016, Lexis Advance Search Term Maps is an exclusive, data visualization tool that helps expedite the review of full-text documents by mapping search terms so users can assess the relevance of their search results and navigate within a document at unprecedented speed. Using search word color coding and a Search Term Location Bar, the interactive tool provides users with a visual overview of the location and clustering of search words, enabling them to spot patterns, identify dense concentrations of search terms and review hits in context. Currently available for all case law documents, Search Term Maps will be expanded to cover additional content types within Lexis Advance later this year. The Search Industry Award follows the ALM Innovation Award for “Best Research Platform” earned earlier in 2016 by Lexis Advance. Lexis Advance is a premier online legal information solution used globally by lawyers and other legal and business professionals to quickly and easily find the critical information they need. About LexisNexis® Legal & Professional LexisNexis Legal & Professional is a leading global provider of content and technology solutions that enables professionals in legal, corporate, tax, government, academic and non-profit organizations to make informed decisions and achieve better business outcomes. As a digital pioneer, the company was the first to bring legal and business information online with its Lexis® and Nexis® services. Today, LexisNexis Legal & Professional harnesses leading-edge technology and world-class content, to help professionals work in faster, easier and more effective ways. Through close collaboration with its customers, the company ensures organizations can leverage its solutions to reduce risk, improve productivity, increase profitability and grow their business. LexisNexis Legal & Professional, which serves customers in more than 175 countries with 10,000 employees worldwide, is part of RELX Group, a world-leading provider of information and analytics for professional and business customers across industries.


What:  The Bank of Montreal, a highly diversified financial services provider based in North America, and Elkhorn Investments, LLC, a pioneer of research-based investing, will visit the Nasdaq MarketSite in Times Square in celebration of the listing of the BMO Elkhorn DWA MLP Select™ Index ETN (Nasdaq:BMLP), the first tactical momentum exchange-traded note (ETN) providing exposure to the master limited partnership (MLP) space. BMLP incorporates Dorsey Wright & Associates', a Nasdaq Company, proprietary Relative Strength methodology by tracking the DWA MLP Select™ Index. In honor of the occasion, Laurence Kaplan, Managing Director & US Head, Global Structured Products, will ring the Opening Bell. When: Thursday, February 23, 2017 – 9:15 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. ET Social Media: For multimedia features such as exclusive content, photo postings, status updates and video of bell ceremonies, please visit our Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/NASDAQ. For photos from ceremonies and events, please visit our Instagram page: http://instagram.com/nasdaq. For livestream of ceremonies and events, please visit our YouTube page: http://www.youtube.com/nasdaq/live. For news tweets, please visit our Twitter page: http://twitter.com/nasdaq. For exciting viral content and ceremony photos, please visit our Tumblr page: http://nasdaq.tumblr.com/. Webcast: A live stream of the Nasdaq Opening Bell will be available at: https://new.livestream.com/nasdaq/live or  http://www.nasdaq.com/about/marketsitetowervideo.asx. Photos: To obtain a hi-resolution photograph of the Market Open, please go to http://business.nasdaq.com/discover/market-bell-ceremonies and click on the market open of your choice. About Elkhorn Founded in 2013 by Ben Fulton, a recognized leader and pioneer of the ETF industry, Elkhorn is redefining the relationship between investment strategy and product structure: designing, sponsoring and distributing innovative, research-based investments solutions. At Elkhorn, research drives design and advisors drive structural decisions. Elkhorn has a strategic relationship with Barclays which has increased the capacity of investment solutions offered by Elkhorn. To learn more about Elkhorn please visit www.elkhorn.com. About BMO Financial Group Established in 1817, and currently marking its 200th year of operations, BMO Financial Group is a highly diversified financial services provider based in North America. With total assets of $688 billion as of October 31, 2016, and more than 45,000 employees, BMO provides a broad range of personal and commercial banking, wealth management and investment banking products and services to more than 12 million customers and conducts business through three operating groups: Personal and Commercial Banking, Wealth Management and BMO Capital Markets. About Dorsey, Wright & Associates (DWA), a Nasdaq Company Dorsey, Wright & Associates (DWA), a Nasdaq Company, is a registered investment advisory firm based in Richmond, Virginia. DWA was acquired by Nasdaq last year and the combined group represents one of the largest providers of smart beta indexes with nearly $52.4 billion in assets tracking Nasdaq Indexes. DWA and Nasdaq develop innovative products across myriad asset classes and help create more opportunities for financial advisors. Since 1987, DWA has been an advisor to financial professionals on Wall Street and investment managers worldwide. The company offers comprehensive investment research and analysis through the DWA Research Platform and provides research, modeling, and indexes which apply DWA's expertise in Relative Strength to various financial products including exchange trade funds, mutual funds, UITs, structured products, and separately managed accounts. To take a free trial please visit www.dorseywright.com. About Nasdaq Nasdaq (Nasdaq:NDAQ) is a leading provider of trading, clearing, exchange technology, listing, information and public company services across six continents. Through its diverse portfolio of solutions, Nasdaq enables clients to plan, optimize and execute their business vision with confidence, using proven technologies that provide transparency and insight for navigating today's global capital markets. As the creator of the world's first electronic stock market, its technology powers more than 85 marketplaces in 50 countries, and 1 in 10 of the world's securities transactions. Nasdaq is home to approximately 3,800 listed companies with a market value of $10.1 trillion and nearly 18,000 corporate clients. To learn more, visit: business.nasdaq.com.


Costantino F.,University of Paris Descartes | Costantino F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Talpin A.,University of Paris Descartes | Talpin A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 18 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2015

Objective To estimate the prevalence of spondyloarthritis (SpA) in reference to HLA-B27 in the French population. Methods In 1989, 20 625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company aged 35-50 years were enrolled in the GAZEL cohort. In 2010, 18 757 still active participants were screened by a questionnaire validated for the detection of SpA. Responders with available DNA were retained for further studies. Pelvic radiograph and HLA-B27 typing were performed in all the self-reported cases of SpA or psoriatic arthritis. Self-reported diagnosis was verified by a qualified rheumatologist. HLA-B27 determination was also performed in subjects without any SpA feature. Results The target population consisted of 6556 responders with available DNA. Their male:female ratio was 3.6 and their mean age was 65.5±3.3 years. A diagnosis of SpA was confirmed in 32 of the 72 self-reported cases, 75% of them being HLA-B27 positive. Estimated SpA prevalence adjusted for sex was 0.43% (95% CI 0.26% to 0.70%). HLA-B27 positivity rate in 2466 healthy controls was 6.9% (95% CI 5.9% to 7.9%). The relative risk of SpA in HLA-B27 positive individuals was 39 (95% CI 17 to 86). Conclusions We estimated the prevalence of SpA in the French population in 2010 to 0.43%. With an estimated prevalence of 75.0% in SpA and 6.9% in healthy controls, HLA-B27 increased the disease risk 39-fold, as compared with HLA-B27 negative subjects.

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