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Furuya J.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science | Kobayashi S.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science | Yamamoto Y.,Research Planning and Coordination Division | Nishimori M.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences
Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly | Year: 2015

Annual crop yield forecasts are necessary for analysis because evaluating climate-change impacts on world food markets requires supply-response functions, including output prices of the prior year. This research was undertaken to develop yield-response functions of the world food model to evaluate climate- change effects by incorporating a crop model into the yield-trend function. Yield-trend functions of rice, wheat, maize, and soybeans were obtained by estimating logistic functions or linear functions with a logarithmic time-trend term and climate variables. Furthermore, temperature and solar-radiation elasticities of yields were calculated using a crop model of the FAO and IIASA. The functions of the maximum rate of gross biomass production and the maximum net rate of CO2 exchange of leaves in the crop model were modified by introducing cubic spline interpolation and logistic functions. Smoothing these two functions alleviates drastic changes, but reveals small changes in the elasticities of crop yields compared to the kinked functions and these more realistic elasticities can improve the evaluation accuracy of climate-change impacts on crop supply and demand. These variable elasticities of temperature and solar-radiation were inserted into the yield-trend functions, whereupon the global effects of changes in climate variables, including rainfall, were analyzed. The changes in yields obtained using climate variables of two of the four RCP scenarios were compared with the baseline, for which climate variables were fixed. Results of trend analyses show that yields of rice, wheat, maize, and soybeans under RCP8.5 are lower than those under RCP2.6, except for wheat in China. Results of geographical analysis show that climate change can be expected to affect wheat and maize productions in low-latitude countries. Furthermore, results suggest that climate change will depress rice production in sub-Saharan African countries in the 2040s. Source


Koda K.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science | Manpuku Y.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science | Manpuku Y.,Research Planning and Coordination Division | Kobayashi T.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science | And 4 more authors.
Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly | Year: 2013

The authors have been conducting research with the aim of developing methods to preserve and effectively use groundwater resources. This research has been ongoing since 2008 with the focus on Laura Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Examination of the groundwater level potentials in pre-existing observation wells at Site No. 6, named by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), showed no difference in the groundwater level potential along the depth. Accordingly, observation well No. 6-N was established by boring to accurately observe the profiles of electric conductivity (EC) of groundwater. However, salt water intrusion occurred, contrary to the observed results for the groundwater level potential. Accordingly, the depth of the salt water intrusion was identified by developing a double packer, observation well No. 6-N was partially sealed and the sealing effect on the observation well was confirmed. This paper will discuss 1) the measures against salt water intrusion which occurred in the observation well, 2) the groundwater flow in an observation well, which was established to measure electric conductivity (EC) profiles of the groundwater, and 3) the depth of the groundwater path estimated by measuring EC profiles with a double packer in the observation well. Source


Wang L.-J.,China Agricultural University | Cheng Y.-Q.,China Agricultural University | Yin L.-J.,China Agricultural University | Bhandari B.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2010

Douchi is a traditional salt-fermented soy product widely consumed in Southern China. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) supplementation on color, firmness, pH value, content of soluble protein and amino-type nitrogen of Douchi during processing were investigated. The results indicated that Douchi became dark and soft as the level of NaCl was increased. The contents of soluble protein and amino-type nitrogen increased during processing. The pH value increased in pre-fermentation, but decreased in post-fermentation stages. Lower salt content in Douchi resulted in lower firmness. Salt inhibited the hydrolysis of protein. SDS-PAGE results showed that the Douchi extracts were mainly consisted of low molecular weight peptides (less than 25kDa). Source


Wang L.-J.,China Agricultural University | Mu H.-L.,China Agricultural University | Liu H.-J.,China Agricultural University | Bhandari B.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2010

Douchi is a traditional fermented soybean product originated in China and it has been consumed since ancient times as seasoning for food. Volatile components of three commercial douchies were extracted using a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction apparatus (SDE). The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 131 compounds were identified, but only 25 components were common to all three brands. Major classes of compounds included esters (29), acids (18), alcohols (16), pyrazines (14), ketones (13), aldehydes (12), phenols (6), hydrocarbons (5), furans (5), sulphur-containing compounds (5), pyridines (4), pyrimidines (2), and miscellaneous compounds (2). Copyright © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Kim I.,Gyeongsang National University | Park J.-Y.,TAEMYUNG E and E | Kim C.,Gyeongsang National University | Park J.-W.,Gyeongsang National University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2016

The charge-discharge process of the room-temperature Na/S battery is studied using the Na/S cell with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) and the solid electrolyte. The solid electrolyte is a barrier for chemical mass transport between the anode and the cathode. The sodium polysulfides as reaction products in TEGDME could therefore be investigated without interference from the anode side. During discharge, the color of the TEGDME electrolyte changes from transparent to brown, yellowish-green, and then back to transparent, and in the reverse order during charge. The first three colors are well-matched with those of prepared TEGDME solutions of Na2Sn (6 ≤ n ≤ 8), Na2S4 and Na2S, respectively. The solubility of sodium polysulfides (Na2Sn, 1 ≤ n ≤ 8) in TEGDME are measured systematically. The dissolution of sodium polysulfides is found to depend on the molar concentration of sulfur. The optimized Na/S cell using activated carbon delivers a high capacity of 1070 mAh g-1at the first discharge, and remains at 782 mAh g-1 after 37 cycles. It also shows good rate capability with a discharge capacity of 569 mAh g-1at 1/2 C. The coulombic efficiency is nearly 100% after the 5th cycle. © 2016 The Electrochemical Society. Source

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