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Bouzid M.A.,University of Lille Nord de France | Hammouda O.,Research Laboratory Sport Performance Optimisation | Matran R.,Service EFR | Robin S.,Service EFR | Fabre C.,University of Lille Nord de France
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress markers and biomarkers of muscle injury would be affected by aging at rest and in response to an incremental exhaustive exercise. Methods: Fifteen young (20.3±2.8 years) and fifteen older adults (65.1±3.5 years) performed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion. Before and after exercise, oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbic acid, α-Tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA)] and muscle injury [creatine kinase (CK), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH)] biomarkers were assessed. Results: At rest, there was no difference in oxidative stress markers and LDH level between the groups, however CK was significantly higher in the young group than the elderly group (p<0.05). During recovery, in comparison with resting values, a significant increase in SOD (1092±145.9 vs. 1243±98 U/g Hb), GPX (67.4±12.7 vs. 79.2±15.6 U/g Hb) and GR (6.5±0.9 vs. 7.7±0.5 U/g Hb) activities were observed only in the young group (p<0.05). MDA has increased only in the older group (0.54±0.2 vs. 0.79±0.2 μmol/l) (p<0.01). CK increased in both groups (young group: 122.5±22.2 vs. 161.9±18.7 UI/l; older group: 88.8±34.1 vs. 111.1±25.9 UI/l) (p<0.01), however LDH has increased only in the young group (400.5±22.2 vs. 485618.7 UI/l) (p<0.01) without alteration in the older group (382.8±34.1 vs. 418.5±25.9 UI/l). Conclusions: These findings indicate that aging is associated with a decrease in antioxidant efficiency and an increase in oxidative stress damage. Furthermore, older adults would not more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle injury than young people. © 2014 Bouzid et al.

Ben Abderrahman A.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany | Ben Abderrahman A.,Laboratory Adaptations Cardio circulatoires | Ben Abderrahman A.,Manouba University | Zouhal H.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2013

The aim of this longitudinal study was to compare two recovery modes (active vs. passive) during a seven-week high-intensity interval training program (SWHITP) aimed to improve maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O 2max), maximal aerobic velocity (MAV), time to exhaustion (t lim) and time spent at a high percentage of V̇O2max, i.e., above 90 % (t90 V̇O2max) and 95 % (t95 V̇O 2max) of V̇O2max. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to a control group that did not train (CG, n = 6) and two training groups: intermittent exercise (30 s exercise/30 s recovery) with active (IE A, n = 9) or passive recovery (IEP, n = 9). Before and after seven weeks with (IEA and IEP) or without (CG) high-intensity interval training (HIT) program, all subjects performed a maximal graded test to determine their V̇O2max and MAV. Subsequently only the subjects of IEA and IEP groups carried out an intermittent exercise test consisting of repeating as long as possible 30 s intensive runs at 105 % of MAV alternating with 30 s active recovery at 50 % of MAV (IEA) or 30 s passive recovery (IEP). Within IE A and IEP, mean tlim and MAV significantly increased between the onset and the end of the SWHITP and no significant difference was found in t90 VO2max and t95 VO2max. Furthermore, before and after the SWHITP, passive recovery allowed a longer tlim for a similar time spent at a high percentage of VO 2max. Finally, within IEA, but not in IEP, mean VO2max increased significantly between the onset and the end of the SWHITP both in absolute (p < 0.01) and relative values (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed a significant increase in VO2max after a SWHITP with active recovery in spite of the fact that tlim was significantly longer (more than twice longer) with respect to passive recovery. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ouergui I.,High Institute of Sport and Physical education Kef | Hammouda O.,Research Laboratory Sport Performance Optimisation | Chtourou H.,Research Laboratory Sport Performance Optimisation | Gmada N.,High Institute of Sport and Physical education Kef | Franchini E.,University of Sao Paulo
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Purpose: To verify whether active recovery (AR) applied after a kickboxing match resulted in better performance in anaerobic tests when compared to passive recovery (PR). Methods: Eighteen kickboxers volunteered to participate on a Kickboxing match preceded and followed by anaerobic tests: squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the upper-body Wingate test. Blood lactate (BL), heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were analyzed before and after rounds. The recovery sessions consisted of 10min at 50% of maximal aerobic speed or PR. BL was measured at 3, 5 and 10 min after the match, while HR, RPE and anaerobic power were assessed after the recovery period. Results: BL, HR and RPE increased significantly (P<0.001) during the match. BL was lower (P<0.001) after AR compared to PR at 5 min and 10 min (e.g. AR: 8.94 ± 0.31 mmol.l-1, PR: 10.98 ± 0.33 mmol.l-1). However, PR resulted in higher (P<0.05) upper-body mean power (4.65 ± 0.5 W.kg-1) compared to AR (4.09 ± 0.5 W.kg-1), while SJ and CMJ were not affected by the recovery type. Conclusion: The lactate removal was improved with AR when compared with PR, but AR did not improve subsequent performance. © 2014 by Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, All rights reserved.

Jebali T.,Research Laboratory Sport Performance Optimisation | Jebali T.,University of Sfax | Moalla W.,University of Sfax | Elloumi M.,University of Sfax | And 6 more authors.
Biology of Sport | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to investigate the heart rate (HR) responses, the rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and the feeling during physical education schooling while performing traditional games activities compared to intermittent exercise. Nineteen pre-pubertal children randomly performed on different days two types of lessons (intermittent running mode vs. traditional Tunisian "Raqassa" game) lasting 12-min each. HR was continuously recorded during both lessons, while ratings of perceived exertion and Feeling values were recorded after the sessions. The mean HR value during the traditional game was significantly higher than during intermittent exercise (p<0.05). Conversely, the perceived exertion score was significantly higher after intermittent exercise than the traditional exercise game (p<0.05), showing that the higher cardiovascular strain of the game was perceived as "lighter" than the run. Simultaneously, the children's Feeling was significantly higher after the traditional game than intermittent exercise (p<0.001), showing a higher satisfaction from playing with respect to running. Exercise based on the "Raqassa" traditional game could be used in pre-pubertal children as an alternative or as an additional method for suitable cardiovascular stimulation during physical education lessons with lower perceived exertion and better feeling compared to intermittent running.

Jarraya S.,Research Laboratory Sport Performance Optimisation | Jarraya S.,University of Sfax | Jarraya M.,Research Laboratory Sport Performance Optimisation | Jarraya M.,University of Sfax | And 4 more authors.
Biological Rhythm Research | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the time of day and partial sleep deprivation on cognitive performances (i.e., attention and reaction time [RT]) of the handball goalkeeper (GK). The protocol involved 12 healthy GK volunteer males (age: 18.5 ± 1.7 years, level of experience: 8.3 ± 2.4 years, height: 1.80 ± 5.8 cm; body-mass: 79 ± 4.2 kg). They performed three cognitive tasks, i.e. the RT test, the Stroop test, and the barrage test, respectively, to evaluate the RT, the selective attention (SA), and the constant attention (CA) following the two situations of partial sleep deprivation, i.e. in the beginning (SDB) and the end (SDE) of the night, and a reference night which is a full night of habitual sleep. Resting oral temperature was measured at the beginning of each test session. Each of the three experimental conditions was separated by a 72-h period. The analysis of variance revealed a significant sleep deprivation × test-time effect on the RT, the SA, and the CA. These variables decreased significantly from morning to afternoon for all three experimental conditions. It seems that the RT is more affected by SDE than SDB (p < 0.05; -41% vs. 49% after SDE and SDB, respectively); however, SA and CA are more affected by SDB than SDE (p < 0.05; 63% vs. 47% for SA and 39% vs. 29% for CA after SDB and SDE, respectively). Furthermore, the partial sleep deprivation causes a phase advance of the core temperature. In addition, cognitive performances are not in phase with the rhythm of core temperature for all three experimental conditions. In conclusion, the partial sleep deprivation negatively affect cognitive performances in the handball goalkeeper. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

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