News Article | May 21, 2017
Nils Pratley (Labour’s water renationalisation plan is a damp squib, 17 May) argues that there is no need to renationalise water because regulation is enough to tame the monopolistic behaviour of the private operators. This argument is not convincing when you look at the experience with water privatisation since 1989. First, the private companies have prioritised paying dividends to shareholders over providing good quality and affordable water services to consumers. Overcharging – the result of price hikes and tactics that include gaming the regulatory system and fraudulent behaviour – has led to a concerning increase in water poverty. In 2009/10, an estimated 23.6% of households in England and Wales were spending more than 3% of their income on water and sewerage (11.5% were spending over 5% of their income). Second, the economic regulator Ofwat is part of the problem. For over 25 years it has presided over profit-seeking and increasing water poverty. As Ofwat has selectively defined its own remit to exclude the protection of vulnerable consumers, there is no reason to expect that it would champion the water-poor on a future government’s say-so. As to the other arguments advanced, research by the Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU) shows no evidence of superior private efficiency, either in the UK or internationally. Bringing water back into public hands (as Paris did in 2010, followed by a rapidly growing number of cities in developed and developing countries) allows for an ambitious social and environmental agenda that cannot happen under private management. Another international lesson is that private companies regularly overestimate the costs of nationalisation to discourage any such attempts. Financing these costs always makes economic sense in the long term. What is needed in England and Wales is not tinkering with a privatised system that has failed to deliver on its promises but radically changing the priorities of water operators so that people come before profit. By abolishing the payment of dividends and lowering the cost of financing investment, nationalisation can do just that. Dr Emanuele Lobina Principal lecturer, PSIRU, University of Greenwich, London • Your article on water leakage (Fifth of water supply leaks before it gets to taps, amid drought warnings, 12 May) was right to say companies needed to do more. But it was wrong to suggest that any leading company, like ours, would tolerate leakage rising again. For the 4 million customers living in the Anglian Water region there will be no hosepipe ban this summer. That’s despite it being a dry region and the recent low rainfall. Our work on leakage is one of the reasons we can be so confident in reassuring customers of this. We’ve set our own ambitious targets because we operate in the driest part of the country and because we know leakage matters to customers. Investing more to stop leaks and go further than any other company was central to our five-year business plan – a plan that our customers explicitly supported when we spoke to them about it. Reducing leakage requires sustained effort over decades. We know this because that is the trajectory we are on; going further than most of the industry, because we know it’s right for our customers, and for the environment. Having made reductions every year since privatisation, our leakage is at record low levels – around half the national average. That’s in the face of a 33% increase in the population we serve. Despite this we still put the same amount of water into supply as we did nearly 30 years ago, which is only possible because of our performance on leakage, approach to voluntary metering, and encouraging customers to be water efficient too. We have set the most ambitious targets in the industry and we will go further, which is why we have a 300-strong leakage team working day and night and using every technology at their disposal, including thermal imaging drones and specialist robots. By 2020 we will have spent £124m in just five years to drive leakage down. Our war on leakage isn’t about meeting regulatory targets, it’s about beating them. We hate leaks as much as our customers do, and the suggestion that our hundreds of passionate leakage experts would take their foot off the gas now does their ambition a disservice. Peter Simpson Chief executive, Anglian Water • Read more Guardian letters – click here to visit gu.com/letters
News Article | May 16, 2017
DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "International Research Conference on Sustainable Energy, Engineering, Materials and Environment (SEEME)" conference to their offering. This conference offers a platform for worldwide researchers and scientists from academia, industry and government to discuss proposals and disseminate results on sustainable energy and materials and its impact on engineering and our Environment. The formation of lasting productive partnerships between the participants is also an objective of this conference. This research conference is open to all in the research and scientific community. Topics will include, but are not limited to: For more information about this conference visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/v3dxs6/international
News Article | May 16, 2017
SALT LAKE CITY--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Wasatch Advisors today announced the reopening of the Wasatch Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund (WAFMX / WIFMX) to new investors through third-party intermediaries, financial advisors and retirement plans. The Fund had been closed to new investors through intermediaries since May 9, 2014. Roger Edgley, Director of International Research, said, “Wasatch is confident regarding the outlook for many of the frontier and emerging small countries where we see improving conditions. We’re seeing interesting opportunities and we believe there is capacity for additional assets in the fund. We continue to travel extensively across regions and countries and are excited about these markets and their long-term growth potential.” Wasatch carefully monitors portfolio assets in order to protect the integrity of its investment process and the investment objective of each strategy. Wasatch Advisors is the investment manager to Wasatch Funds, as well as to separately managed institutional and individual portfolios. Wasatch Advisors pursues a disciplined approach to investing, focused on bottom-up, fundamental analysis to develop a deep understanding of the investment potential of individual companies. In making investment decisions, the portfolio managers employ a uniquely collaborative process to leverage the knowledge and skill of the entire Wasatch Advisors research team. Wasatch Advisors is an employee-owned investment advisor founded in 1975 and headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah. The firm had $15.2 billion in assets under management as of April 30, 2017. Wasatch Advisors, Inc. is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940. Mutual-fund investing involves risks, and loss of principal is possible. Investing in small-cap funds will be more volatile, and loss of principal could be greater than investing in large-cap or more diversified funds. Investing in foreign securities, especially in frontier and emerging markets, entails special risks, such as unstable currencies, highly volatile securities markets, and political and social instability, which are described in more detail in the prospectus. The investment objective of the Wasatch Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund is long-term growth of capital. An investor should consider investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses carefully before investing. To obtain a prospectus, containing this and other information, visit www.WasatchFunds.com or call 800.551.1700. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing. Separately managed accounts and related investment advisory services are provided by Wasatch Advisors, Inc., a federally regulated investment advisor. © 2017 Wasatch Funds. All rights reserved. Wasatch Funds are distributed by ALPS Distributors, Inc. (ADI). Steve Rung is a registered representative of ADI. ADI is not affiliated with Wasatch Advisors, Inc.
News Article | May 8, 2017
An international team of researchers from the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the University of Montreal has reported, in a paper published this week in Nature Communications, the design and synthesis of a nanoscale molecular slingshot made of DNA that is 20,000 times smaller than a human hair. This molecular slingshot could "shoot" and deliver drugs at precise locations in the human body once triggered by specific disease markers. The molecular slingshot is only a few nanometres long and is composed of a synthetic DNA strand that can load a drug and then effectively act as the rubber band of the slingshot. The two ends of this DNA "rubber band" contain two anchoring moieties that can specifically stick to a target antibody, a Y-shaped protein expressed by the body in response to different pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. When the anchoring moieties of the slingshot recognize and bind to the arms of the target antibody the DNA "rubber band" is stretched and the loaded drug is released. "One impressive feature about this molecular slingshot," says Francesco Ricci, Associate Professor of Chemistry at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, "is that it can only be triggered by the specific antibody recognizing the anchoring tags of the DNA 'rubber band'. By simply changing these tags, one can thus program the slingshot to release a drug in response to a variety of specific antibodies. Since different antibodies are markers of different diseases, this could become a very specific weapon in the clinician's hands." "Another great property of our slingshot," adds Alexis Vallée-Bélisle, Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Montreal, "is its high versatility. For example, until now we have demonstrated the working principle of the slingshot using three different trigger antibodies, including an HIV antibody, and employing nucleic acids as model drugs. But thanks to the high programmability of DNA chemistry, one can now design the DNA slingshot to 'shoot' a wide range of threrapeutic molecules." "Designing this molecular slingshot was a great challenge," says Simona Ranallo, a postdoctoral researcher in Ricci's team and principal author of the new study. "It required a long series of experiments to find the optimal design, which keeps the drug loaded in 'rubber band' in the absence of the antibody, without affecting too much its shooting efficiency once the antibody triggers the slingshot." The group of researchers is now eager to adapt the slingshot for the delivery of clinically relevant drugs, and to demonstrate its clinical efficiency. "We envision that similar molecular slingshots may be used in the near future to deliver drugs to specific locations in the body. This would drastically improve the efficiency of drugs as well as decrease their toxic secondary effects," concludes Ricci. The next step in the project is to target a specific disease and drug for which the therapeutic slingshot can be adapted for testing on cells in vitro, prior to testing in mice. Carl Prévost-Tremblay (UofM) and Andrea Idili (UofT) are also co-authors on this study. This study was funded by Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro (project no. 14420), by the European Research Council (project no. 336493) by the International Research Staff Exchange Scheme (IRSES), by the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (grant no. 2014- 06403) and by the Canada Research Chair in Bioengineering and Bio-nanotechnology, Tier II (AVB).
News Article | May 19, 2017
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) is establishing 15 new Research Training Groups to further support early career researchers in Germany. They include two International Research Training Groups with partners in Australia and China. This was decided by the relevant Grants Committee during its spring session in Bonn. The collaborations will be funded for an initial period of four and a half years. During this period they will receive approximately €66 million in funding, including a 22% programme allowance for indirect costs arising in each research project. In addition to the new groups, the Grants Committee approved the extension of five Research Training Groups for another four and a half years. Research Training Groups offer doctoral researchers the opportunity to complete their theses in a structured research and qualification programme at a high academic level. In total the DFG is currently funding 213 Research Training Groups, including 40 International Research Training Groups; the 15 new groups will commence their work as of September 2017. In addition to funding decisions, the Committee addressed basic questions relating to the Research Training Group programme, particularly the qualification measures which go beyond the specific research topic. At the meeting, DFG Secretary General Dorothee Dzwonnek described the structures established for this purpose as part of the Excellence Initiative, for example in Graduate Schools. In the Research Training Groups programme, she noted that the funds for measures of this type had been distributed in a non-uniform manner. "The DFG believes it is extremely important to distribute financial resources in accordance with uniform standards. Funds for transferable skills training, which allows doctoral researchers to acquire expertise beyond a given research topic, should therefore continue to be available," Dzwonnek said. In his introductory report, DFG President Prof. Dr. Peter Strohschneider linked the topic of qualification with comments on the role of research and early career support in view of the current world political situation and attacks on research and the freedom of research: "Research Training Groups have a special role to play in this regard. They must allow people to develop into 'well-rounded' researchers who value ideas emanating from outside their own areas of specialisation, cultivate methodological scepticism and are aware that scholarship consists in the very pluralism of research disciplines." The need to deal with uncertainties is ubiquitous in computer science. For example, applications process large volumes of data from often unreliable sources such as non-trustworthy websites. Data may also be subject to continuous changes, exist in different formats, or be incomplete. Key techniques in this regard include probabilistic modelling - a form of description that explicitly models uncertainties - and randomisation, the use of random processes in calculations. The Research Training Group "UNRAVEL - UNcertainty and Randomness in Algorithms, VErification, and Logic" intends to advance the probabilistic modelling and analysis of uncertainty by developing new theories, algorithms and verification techniques and apply them to security, planning and performance analysis. The research projects of the Research Training Group "Energy, Entropy, and Dissipative Dynamics" are concerned with various models in physics, materials sciences and geometry, as used for example to describe gas dynamics or network flows. The linking element is the examination of energy and entropy functionals, which allow the fundamental parameters of the systems under examination to be described, and whose temporal relationship serves as a tool to study the properties of a model and the permissible dynamics. The doctoral researchers will investigate the research questions using analysis, modelling and numerics in the area of nonlinear partial differential equations and applied analysis. "Tight Junctions and Their Proteins: Molecular Features and Actions in Health and Disease" are the focus of a Research Training Group of the same name. Tight junctions (TJs) connect adjacent cells of surface structures of the body such as in the skin, as well as inside the body, and perform an important barrier function. By regulating their permeability, they control the transport of substances to essential organs like the intestines and kidneys. The group intends to expand our knowledge of the composition, structure and function of TJs at the molecular level, analyse the development and control of TJs in various tissues and investigate in more detail the role of TJs in the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases. Malaria is caused by single-celled parasites known as Plasmodium, which are transmitted by the bite of the Anopheles mosquito. Some basic principles of the progress of the disease and parasite-host interactions are still not understood. The German-Australian International Research Training Group "Crossing Boundaries: Molecular Interactions in Malaria" will therefore investigate the molecular mechanisms of Plasmodium infections as a basis for strategies to develop new drugs and immunisations for improved malaria treatment and prevention. In many developed economies, differences in wealth and income have strongly increased in recent decades. Although growing economic inequality occupies a prominent place in public debate, little research has been carried out into the economic implications of this trend. The Research Training Group "The Macroeconomics of Inequality" therefore intends to document the many different dimensions of this inequality and understand the causes of growing inequality. In a second stage they will examine whether macroeconomic crises spread differently in unequal societies and whether inequality creates new channels through which microeconomic crises acquire macroeconomic relevance. The scholarly examination of contemporary literature is currently very popular. The question as to what constitutes contemporary literature is posed in terms of the history of literature primarily as the question of the limits of an epoch. The Research Training Group "Contemporary/Literature. History, Theory, and Praxeology" intends to study the dimensions of the concept of contemporary literature in more depth for the first time and analyse it on a comparative European basis. In so doing, the group aims to develop a history of the legitimation, actualisation and transformation of concepts of the contemporary and thus contribute to the establishment of historically and theoretically reflective contemporary literature research. The Tibetan Plateau is of major importance for the global water, energy and element cycles. At the same time it is one of the most endangered geo-ecosystems in the world, with rapid climate warming, seasonal variation in precipitation and an increase in land use accelerating material flows on the Earth's surface, affecting the carbon sink potential of soils and impacting on water supplies and water quality. The International Research Training Group "Geo-Ecosystems in Transition on the Tibetan Plateau (TransTiP)" intends to study water resources and species composition on the Tibetan Plateau in the context of global climate change. They aim to do this primarily through detailed analysis of changes in material flows on the Earth's surface, including sediments, carbon and water. In medicine today, the triggering of inflammation in the body is understood as an active process. The Research Training Group "Resolution of Inflammation - Mediators, Signalling and Therapeutic Options" aims to discover how the resolution of inflammation is activated and controlled and what signal cascades are involved. The participating researchers will study the signals of dying cells and phenotype change in immune cells as well as the restoration of barriers in the context of inflammation resolution. Their aim is to better understand the principles of faulty resolution in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The Research Training Group "MeInBio - BioInMe: Exploration of Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Gene Regulation Using High-Throughput and High-Resolution Methods" will investigate how the genetic information in a DNA sequence presents itself. How do individual cells adapt to specific stages of differentiation? How does the transcription programme of single cells differ from programmes of apparently the same form which have been decoded by studying cell populations? To answer these questions, the Research Training Group intends to use high-throughput sequencing to adapt established methods to small numbers of cells and single cells. In many places, forests are composed of a mix of native tree species and those which have been cultivated outside their natural area of distribution. The Research Training Group "Enrichment of European Beech Forests with Conifers: Impacts of Functional Traits on Ecosystem Functioning" will study the impact of such mixes on ecosystem functioning. The researchers will also examine the widespread assumption that the presence, distribution and variability of functional traits of species are more important to ecosystem functioning than species diversity per se. The medieval period is often described as a deficient preliminary stage to the modern period, partly because its social and cultural manifestations are considered to be particularly traditional and conventional. The Research Training Group "Dynamics of Conventionality (400-1550)" will investigate the dynamics of European medieval societies and cultures by applying a concept of convention which essentially encompasses all forms of social agreement. Accepted social and artistic rules, although claiming to be normative, were nevertheless subject to constant processes of negotiation, reinterpretation and fictionalisation and were sometimes even dismissed as bad habits. The Research Training Group "Statistical Modelling in Psychology (SMiP)" aims to forge a link between traditionally loosely connected areas of psychology - research in the basic and applied disciplines of psychology on the one hand and the latest developments in methodology and statistical modelling on the other. To this end, the group will develop statistical models as a framework for the formalisation of psychological theories and research questions. Researchers from five institutions are joining forces to address this small but important working area in psychology. Expectations - defined as conditional predictions of future events in the form of 'if X then Y' hypotheses - are often maintained even after being empirically disproved. This phenomenon, known as "expectation persistence", has already been observed and described in widely differing research contexts. In social psychology, for example, prejudices against another group were shown to persist in spite of positive experiences with members of this group. An integrative approach to these aspects of human behaviour is lacking, however, which is why the Research Training Group "Expectation Maintenance vs. Change in the Context of Expectation Violations: Connecting Different Approaches" will address the phenomenon of expectation persistence. Cancer is an important challenge to modern societies. A combination of new imaging and computer-assisted techniques with advanced therapeutic strategies offers a key to early diagnosis, precise tumour characterisation and successful treatment. In the Research Training Group "Advanced Medical Physics for Image-Guided Cancer Therapy", doctoral researchers in the natural sciences and medicine will collaborate to improve image-based cancer therapy. The Research Training Group "Chemical Bond Activation" will focus on the activation of normally fairly non-reactive hydrocarbon compounds. In so doing, they aim to develop an in-depth mechanistic understanding of selected bond activation reactions. Understanding bond activation has relevance in many industrial and ecological applications. Further information will also be provided by the spokespersons of the Research Training Groups. More information about the funding programme and the funded Research Training Groups is available at: http://www.
News Article | May 25, 2017
In the recent past ZnO has emerged as a promising alternative to Si and GaN in devices like light-emitting diodes (LEDs), photodetectors, and optically pumped lasers for the UV region1-3. ZnO has several special properties such as direct wide bandgap (~3.37eV)4, radiation resistance, high adsorption capacity, high exciton energy (~60meV)4, high mechanical and thermal stabilities, and transparency in the visible range of the electromagnetic radiation4-6. In recent times, one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures of ZnO have attracted considerable attention of researchers, because of its unique properties (such as controllable shape and size)7-10. A variety of 1-D nanostructures of ZnO, such as nanostructures7, nanowires (NWs)8, nanorods (NRs)9, nanoparticles10, spirals11, nanoneedle12, and nanocombs13 can be grown by different synthesis techniques7-13. Among these 1-D nanostructures, NRs and NWs are the most popular and commonly used structures of ZnO, for different applications. The ZnO-NRs can be grown by a variety of techniques like sol-gel method14, atomic layer deposition (ALD)15, thermal evaporation16, electrodeposition17, spray pyrolysis18, hydrothermal9, and chemical vapor deposition19. Most of these growth techniques are complex and require high growth temperatures (600-1000°C)12, 16. The hydrothermal method has attracted considerable interest because of its simplicity and low-temperature processing9, 20-23. Different nanostructures of ZnO such as nanoflowers21, nano-crystals22, and nanopencils23 could be grown by hydrothermal techniques. In the past decade, a lot of work has been done on ZnO-NR-based devices like optically pumped lasers24, field effect transistors25, and biological and chemical sensors etc26. Among these, ZnO-NR-based UV detectors and optical switches have been the focus of wide studies 27, 28. In recent times, many groups have reported the UV detection properties of ZnO thin films and ZnO nanostructures-based devices28-30. Li et al. reported Au/ZnO NR array-based UV photodetectors (UV-PDs) with good sensitivity (contrast ratio ~ 4.7)30. They have grown ZnO-NR arrays on F-doped SnO2 (FTO) substrates by hydrothermal synthesis. Humayun et al. reported a ZnO nanostructure decorated microgap electrodes UV sensor. They have compared the UV sensing properties of Au/Ti/ZnO thin film and Au/Ti/ZnO NR array deposited in selective areas of the microgap electrodes spacing31. They concluded that the fabricated devices could be used for low power miniaturized devices having rapid response and reproducibility31. Witkowski et al. have reported UV detector properties of ZnO-NRs grown on quartz substrates by the hydrothermal method. They have fabricated ohmic contacts of Ti/Au on ZnO-NRs and their detector showed a sensitivity of 20 mW/m2 upon UV illumination32. Zhou et al. reported Pt/ZnO-NR and Pt/modified ZnO-NR based Schottky UV detectors. They have used different seed layers and metal oxide (MgZnO, MgO, and Al-doped ZnO) modifying layer materials. They reported that the ZnO-NRs UV-PD, which was grown on MgZnO seed layer and without oxide material-coating, demonstrated bigger responsivity and a larger detectivity than PDs with a ZnO seed layer33. Liu et al. have reported UV detectors based on the vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowires on graphene, which showed high responsivity of 1.62 A W?1 per volt34. Nie et al. have reported monolayer graphene (MLG) film/ZnO NR Schottky UV detectors with quick response of millisecond rise time/fall times35. Dang et al. have reported ZnO nanostructure/graphene (Gr) based UV detectors with high responsivity (RI ~ 3 × 105 A W?1)36. Although there have been several works that reported on the UV-sensing properties using ZnO NRs, there are only a few reports on the UV-sensing of ZnO-NRs (grown by the hydrothermal-method) at a low-voltage. The main focus of this work is to examine the UV-sensing characteristics of Ag/ZnO-NRs Schottky devices at forward applied bias over the range 0 V to 1 V. The results show that these devices could be useful for cost-effective and low-voltage UV detection applications. Additional co-authors of this paper include Dr. Shaivalini Singh, International Research Professor, Department of Electronic Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do South Korea and Professor S. Jit, Associate Professor, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, BHU, Varanasi, India. The corresponding author is Professor Si-Hyun Park, Department of Electronic Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do South Korea, email@example.com. This research (DOI) can be found in the NANO journal.
News Article | May 26, 2017
Abstract: In the recent past ZnO has emerged as a promising alternative to Si and GaN in devices like light-emitting diodes (LEDs), photodetectors, and optically pumped lasers for the UV region1-3. ZnO has several special properties such as direct wide bandgap (~3.37eV)4, radiation resistance, high adsorption capacity, high exciton energy (~60meV)4, high mechanical and thermal stabilities, and transparency in the visible range of the electromagnetic radiation4-6. In recent times, one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures of ZnO have attracted considerable attention of researchers, because of its unique properties (such as controllable shape and size)7-10. A variety of 1-D nanostructures of ZnO, such as nanostructures7, nanowires (NWs)8, nanorods (NRs)9, nanoparticles10, spirals11, nanoneedle12, and nanocombs13 can be grown by different synthesis techniques7-13. Among these 1-D nanostructures, NRs and NWs are the most popular and commonly used structures of ZnO, for different applications. The ZnO-NRs can be grown by a variety of techniques like sol-gel method14, atomic layer deposition (ALD)15, thermal evaporation16, electrodeposition17, spray pyrolysis18, hydrothermal9, and chemical vapor deposition19. Most of these growth techniques are complex and require high growth temperatures (600-1000°C)12, 16. The hydrothermal method has attracted considerable interest because of its simplicity and low-temperature processing9, 20-23. Different nanostructures of ZnO such as nanoflowers21, nano-crystals22, and nanopencils23 could be grown by hydrothermal techniques. In the past decade, a lot of work has been done on ZnO-NR-based devices like optically pumped lasers24, field effect transistors25, and biological and chemical sensors etc26. Among these, ZnO-NR-based UV detectors and optical switches have been the focus of wide studies 27, 28. In recent times, many groups have reported the UV detection properties of ZnO thin films and ZnO nanostructures-based devices28-30. Li et al. reported Au/ZnO NR array-based UV photodetectors (UV-PDs) with good sensitivity (contrast ratio ~ 4.7)30. They have grown ZnO-NR arrays on F-doped SnO2 (FTO) substrates by hydrothermal synthesis. Humayun et al. reported a ZnO nanostructure decorated microgap electrodes UV sensor. They have compared the UV sensing properties of Au/Ti/ZnO thin film and Au/Ti/ZnO NR array deposited in selective areas of the microgap electrodes spacing31. They concluded that the fabricated devices could be used for low power miniaturized devices having rapid response and reproducibility31. Witkowski et al. have reported UV detector properties of ZnO-NRs grown on quartz substrates by the hydrothermal method. They have fabricated ohmic contacts of Ti/Au on ZnO-NRs and their detector showed a sensitivity of 20 mW/m2 upon UV illumination32. Zhou et al. reported Pt/ZnO-NR and Pt/modified ZnO-NR based Schottky UV detectors. They have used different seed layers and metal oxide (MgZnO, MgO, and Al-doped ZnO) modifying layer materials. They reported that the ZnO-NRs UV-PD, which was grown on MgZnO seed layer and without oxide material-coating, demonstrated bigger responsivity and a larger detectivity than PDs with a ZnO seed layer33. Liu et al. have reported UV detectors based on the vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowires on graphene, which showed high responsivity of 1.62 A W?1 per volt34. Nie et al. have reported monolayer graphene (MLG) film/ZnO NR Schottky UV detectors with quick response of millisecond rise time/fall times35. Dang et al. have reported ZnO nanostructure/graphene (Gr) based UV detectors with high responsivity (RI ~ 3 × 105 A W?1)36. Although there have been several works that reported on the UV-sensing properties using ZnO NRs, there are only a few reports on the UV-sensing of ZnO-NRs (grown by the hydrothermal-method) at a low-voltage. The main focus of this work is to examine the UV-sensing characteristics of Ag/ZnO-NRs Schottky devices at forward applied bias over the range 0 V to 1 V. The results show that these devices could be useful for cost-effective and low-voltage UV detection applications. ### Additional co-authors of this paper include Dr. Shaivalini Singh, International Research Professor, Department of Electronic Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do South Korea and Professor S. Jit, Associate Professor, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, BHU, Varanasi, India. The corresponding author is Professor Si-Hyun Park, Department of Electronic Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do South Korea, . For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.
News Article | May 9, 2017
Joseph Paton, group leader at the Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown in Lisbon, Portugal, is among the awardees announced today, May 9th, 2017, by the International Research Scholars Program. Paton is one of 41 outstanding investigators chosen from 1500 submitted applications. Paton's work has contributed great insight into the mechanisms by which the brain creates mental connections between events separated in time, an ability crucial for vital cognitive functions such as learning and planning. Specifically, together with his team, Paton demonstrated how time is encoded in neural circuits in the brain (Current Biology article, eLife article) and identified a set of neurons that control subjective time perception in rodents (Science article). This grant will allow Paton to further dissect the mechanisms by which internally generated signals, such as the ones that inform the brain about the passage of time, are transformed into action. According to Paton, a deeper understanding of this process is "key for discovering how animals free themselves from the immediacy of the current moment to be able to interact with the world in a more informed and calculated manner." The International Research Scholars Program is funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Wellcome Trust, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Calouste de Gulbenkian Foundation. The programme provides its awardees with a total sum of $650,000 to support their research over a period of five years.
News Article | May 9, 2017
Forty-one scientists from 16 countries have been chosen as International Research Scholars, exceptional early-career scientists poised to advance biomedical research across the globe. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) has teamed up with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, and the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation to develop scientific talent around the world, and will award a total of nearly $26.7 million to this group of scholars. Each researcher will receive a total of $650,000 over five years. The award is a big boon for scientists early in their careers, and offers the freedom to pursue new research directions and creative projects that could develop into top-notch scientific programs. "This is an outstanding group of scientists who will push biomedical research forward worldwide, and we are thrilled to support them alongside our philanthropic partners," said David Clapham, HHMI's Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer. The scientists selected as International Research Scholars represent a diverse array of scientific disciplines and geographic locations. Scholars hail from research organizations and institutions from across the world, from Tanzania to Cambodia to Chile to Austria. Their research covers a broad variety of biological and medical research areas too, including neuroscience, genetics, biophysics, computational biology, and parasitology. "We are excited to join with our partners in supporting these superb scientists. We look to them to bring transformative innovation to priority global health problems," said Chris Karp, Director of Global Health Discovery & Translational Sciences at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. These researchers' goals are innovative, wide-ranging, and forward-thinking. They seek to understand diverse topics, from how immune cells function to how pathogenic bacteria jump from the environment to humans, and are even investigating ways to watch genes switch on and off in living brains. "We are delighted to be a partner in supporting this outstanding community of international researchers. Their expertise and thirst for knowledge will enhance our understanding of how life works and the causes and consequences of disease, said Anne-Marie Coriat, Head of Research Careers at Wellcome Trust. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed more than 1,400 applications, and evaluated both the impact of past work, including doctoral and postdoctoral achievements, and the promise of work to come. It's a researcher-focused approach that emphasizes the skills and talents of the individual, rather than solely the projects proposed. "We are proud to partner with HHMI, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Wellcome Trust to support this truly exceptional group of young biomedical scientists. Biomedical research is increasingly at the core of the work of our research institute, the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência," said Gulbenkian Institute Director Jonathan Howard. HHMI, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, and the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation announced the 2017 International Research Scholar competition March 29, 2016. The competition was open to early-career scientists who held a full-time position at a research-oriented university, medical school, or nonprofit institution, and had been running their own labs for less than seven years. Candidates also had to work in an eligible country, and have received training in the United States or the United Kingdom for at least one year. Ido Amit wants to reveal how immune cells work, and what role they play in health and disease. His lab develops new single cell genomic technologies to study these cells in unprecedented resolution. Figuring out immune cells' actions will help advance the next generation of immunotherapy to fight cancer and other disorders. Melanie Blokesch studies Vibrio cholerae, a water-dwelling bacterium that wreaks havoc in the gut and causes the diarrheal disease cholera. Her team wants to map the molecular tools V. cholerae uses to jump from the environment to humans, which will help explain what triggers cholera outbreaks in endemic areas of the world. Carlos Blondel investigates the emergence of human pathogens by studying their molecular weaponry. He has worked with foodborne pathogens that cause gastrointestinal disease, such as Salmonella and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Blondel recently used CRISPR/Cas 9 genome editing technology to uncover key interactions between V. parahaemolyticus and human cells. Yossi Buganim's goal is to bring therapeutic cells from the lab to the clinic. His team has invented and improved ways to reprogram adult cells into other cell types, including those able to generate nearly any kind of cell in the body. One day, such cells could be tapped for regenerative medicine replacing damaged tissues with those grown in the lab. Tineke Cantaert seeks to understand how the immune system responds to infection by flaviviruses such as Dengue and Zika. Currently, no treatment exists for infection by either virus. Identifying biomarkers for protective immunity might help scientists speed up the development of therapies and vaccines. Ling-Ling Chen is discovering new and unusual classes of RNA molecules called long noncoding RNAs. She's figuring out how these molecules form, what role they play in gene regulation, and how they may influence disease. She has found that some of these RNAs are conspicuously absent in people with the neurodevelopmental genetic disorder Prader-Willi syndrome. Mark Dawson is searching for ways to wipe out malignant stem cells without harming normal stem cells. He studies cancers such as acute myeloid leukemia, which are difficult to eradicate using traditional chemotherapies. Understanding how normal and malignant stem cells differ from each other could let researchers devise more effective, targeted treatments. Ana Domingos is investigating new molecular strategies to fight obesity. She has discovered a direct link between fat tissue and neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, which plays a role in burning fat. Stimulating these neurons could one day lead to a new treatment to cause fat loss. Idan Efroni is unraveling the mystery of plants' impressive regenerative abilities. He uses tomatoes to study how plants generate new stem cells and meristems to replace damaged or missing roots. Insight into this process might reveal clues about tissue regeneration in other organisms, and help scientists boost plant production for agriculture. Eran Elinav is fascinated by microbes that live around and in our body our microbiome. He has discovered important links between nutrition, gut microbes and the risk of developing common diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Now, he wants to figure out how gut microbes impact human relapsing (or "yo-yo") obesity and its many complications. Qiaomei Fu is exploring the genetic roots of humankind. Her work has helped untangle the early history of modern humans and Neanderthals, and reveal how early agriculture affected European farmers. She wants to illuminate the human prehistory of Asia by investigating the ancient genomes of both humans and pathogens. Lena Ho is on the hunt for new peptides linked to human disease. She's looking for hidden gems among previously overlooked regions of our genome, and seeks to understand how the peptides work and how they can be used to combat common diseases of the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Kathryn Holt uses genomic tools to study infectious disease-causing microbes important in global health, including Salmonella typhi, which causes typhoid fever, and Shigella sonnei, a bacterium responsible for dysentery. She wants to understand what makes pathogens emerge, and why some become resistant to antimicrobial drugs. In developing animal embryos, stem cell growth is tightly regulated so that the right kinds of cells emerge at the proper place and time. Catarina Homem is investigating how metabolism and nutrition influence this process, and how mistakes can lead to developmental defects and diseases such as cancer. Michael Hothorn is piecing together how plants sense essential nutrients in the soil and send signals from cell to cell. A molecular understanding of how plants detect and respond to changes in phosphorus levels, for example, could help researchers engineer crops that can survive when nutrients are scarce. Shalev Itzkovitz studies the design principles of mammalian tissues. He's taking a close-up look at individual cells to figure out how they work together in organs such as the intestine, liver, and pancreas. Advanced imaging techniques combined with single cell sequencing will help researchers determine the job description of cells in different organs. Martin Jinek is investigating how protein and RNA molecules team up to control gene expression and protect the genome. He has pioneered work on the powerful genome-editing system known as CRISPR-Cas9, and revealed key details of this system at the atomic level. His work could spur the development of new, cutting-edge technologies for editing genomes and genetic therapies. Luis Larrondo is unwinding the secrets of biological clocks, which help living organisms, including humans, plants and fungi, stay in sync with the Earth's daily rhythms. His research draws upon synthetic biology as well as optogenetics to probe the molecular components that keep biological clocks ticking. Human genomic DNA is packaged with histone proteins into tightly-wound bundles of fiber called chromatin. Guohong Li has used an imaging technique called cryo-electron microscopy to visualize these twisted fibers in 3D at a detail previously unseen. Now, he wants to view the fibers at atomic resolution, and figure out the role of the histones wrapped inside. A suite of chemical tags decorates the genomes of humans, plants, and other multicellular organisms. Ryan Lister is inventing new tools to edit these tags, a type of epigenetic modification, which can regulate gene expression, cell differentiation, and more. He also wants to explore their role in brain development, which could offer new insights into neurological disorders. Mitochondria, which generate energy for cells and regulate programmed cell death, are vulnerable to damage. Ying Liu is using worm genetics and biochemistry to investigate the cellular pathways that sense mitochondrial dysfunction and activate stress responses. Defects in these pathways may contribute to metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Laura Mackay is working to identify pathways that guide the development of tissue-resident memory T cells, immune cells that reside in the body's peripheral tissues and protect against local infections. She wants to harness these cells to create new therapies for infectious disease, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Judit Makara is investigating how neurons in the brain's hippocampus support creation of memories. She is interested in the synaptic and dendritic processing mechanisms that promote the recruitment of individual neurons into ensembles with coordinated activity to store information about places or events. Tomas Marques-Bonet is assessing genomic diversity among great apes. His work will help us understand the biological processes and features that make us human and has implications for conservation biology. He is also using comparative genomics to study changes in gene regulation and the genomic consequences of domestication. Seth Masters uses personalized medicine to identify genetic changes that cause severe inflammatory diseases early in life. These studies teach us about how the innate immune system works, and may also provide targets for the development of drugs to treat more common inflammatory conditions such as heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, type 2 diabetes and neurological disorders. Ruben Moreno-Bote is interested in the idea that although the human brain can solve complex problems, it sometimes falls short on simple tasks. He is combining theoretical and experimental approaches to identify the factors that limit the amount of information stored in the brain. As stem cells develop into specialized cells, their cell fates are influenced by the biochemical pathways that process nutrients to synthesize cellular materials and convert food to energy. Shyh-Chang Ng is studying how these metabolic processes regulate muscle regeneration during aging. His work could deepen our understanding of the effects of nutrition and exercise, and suggest strategies for treating the aging-induced metabolic syndrome. Zaza Ndhlovu is investigating how the immune system is affected when patients with HIV begin combination antiretroviral therapy very early in the course of disease. His goal is to learn whether brief exposure to the virus is sufficient to prime a protective immune response that might one day be boosted by a vaccine. Fredros Okumu is developing species-specific methods of eliminating the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles funestus, with the goal of stopping the disease's transmission in two districts in southeastern Tanzania. Although A. funestus is not the most populous mosquito species in the region, it is responsible for 82-95 percent of local malaria infections. Cellular perturbations, such as changes in nutrient or oxygen levels or accumulation of misfolded proteins, can be indicative of pathogen presence or disruption in normal physiology. Fabiola Osorio studies how the immune system recognizes and responds to signs of cellular stress for regulation of immunity. Biophysicist Hye Yoon Park is developing imaging technologies to visualize the cellular and molecular processes the brain uses to form, consolidate, and retrieve memories. She will use the new techniques to study how neuronal activity alters gene expression to rewire neural circuits during learning. Joseph Paton has discovered key signals in the brain involved in timing and decision-making. He is investigating the circuit mechanisms that generate these signals and transform them into actions. His work will help explain how animals free themselves from the immediacy of the current moment to learn and plan. Nicolas Plachta is using single-cell imaging technologies devised in his lab to study how developing embryos take shape. He wants to understand the molecular mechanisms that govern changes in cell fate, shape, and position and how these changes are coordinated across an entire embryo. Thomas Pucadyil is studying how biological membranes -- protective barriers that are highly resilient to rupture -- split apart to allow for the packaging and transport of cellular materials. He is searching for membrane fission catalysts that cells use to manage this energetically demanding process. Hai Qi is exploring how the immune system generates and maintains memory cells that remember past infections and stay poised to produce antibodies against returning pathogens. His research may open new avenues for vaccine development and suggest better ways to control autoimmune diseases. Asya Rolls wants to understand the connections between the brain and the immune system. She is particularly interested in how brain activity influences the immune system's ability to find and destroy tumors. Her research could reveal new ways to harness the body's inherent disease-fighting potential. Marvin Tanenbaum is developing an imaging approach that will allow researchers to observe individual messenger RNA molecules as they are translated into proteins in living cells. He will use the method to investigate how translation is regulated to control the fate and function of cells. Wai-Hong Tham is studying how malaria parasites interact with their human hosts. Specifically, she wants to understand how Plasmodium vivax, the dominant malaria parasite in countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa, recognizes and invades red blood cells inside the human body. Yanli Wang is studying mechanisms of two bacterial anti-virus defense systems. She is using structural biology to learn how the CRISPR-Cas and Argonaute systems use small molecules of RNA or DNA to find and cleave foreign genetic material. She is also looking for ways to modify their RNA/DNA-cleaving components to increase their efficiency as genome editing tools. Immediately after an egg is fertilized, DNA and its packaging proteins (histones) undergo drastic reorganization so that cells can acquire new identities in early embryos. However, how this is achieved remains poorly understood due to the extremely scarce experimental samples. By developing ultrasensitive tools for chromatin analysis, Wei Xie is working to decipher how such reprogramming occurs and whether chromatin associated "epigenetic" information can be passed on to the next generation. Manuel Zimmer is using the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans to study the dynamics of neural networks. Using a whole-brain imaging approach developed in his lab, he aims to uncover the fundamental computations and their underlying mechanisms neural circuits use to interpret sensory information and generate appropriate behaviors. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute plays a powerful role in advancing scientific research and education. Its scientists, located across the country and around the world, have made important discoveries that advance both human health and our fundamental understanding of biology. The Institute also aims to transform science education into a creative, interdisciplinary endeavor that reflects the excitement of real research. HHMI is headquartered in Chevy Chase, Maryland. http://www. Guided by the belief that every life has equal value, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation works to help all people lead healthy, productive lives. In developing countries, it focuses on improving people's health and giving them the chance to lift themselves out of hunger and extreme poverty. In the United States, it seeks to ensure that all people - especially those with the fewest resources - have access to the opportunities they need to succeed in school and life. Based in Seattle, Washington, the foundation is led by CEO Sue Desmond-Hellmann and Co-chair William H. Gates Sr., under the direction of Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett. http://www. The Wellcome Trust is a global charitable foundation dedicated to improving health. We support bright minds in science, the humanities and the social sciences, as well as education, public engagement and the application of research to medicine. Our investment portfolio gives us the independence to support such transformative work as the sequencing and understanding of the human genome, research that established front-line drugs for malaria, and Wellcome Collection, our free venue for the incurably curious that explores medicine, life and art. http://www. The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation is an international foundation that bears the name of businessman, art collector and philanthropist of Armenian origin, Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian (1869-1955). For almost 60 years, the Foundation has been carrying out extensive activities both in Portugal and abroad through the development of in-house projects -- or in partnership with other institutions -- and by awarding scholarships and grants. Headquartered in Lisbon, where Calouste Gulbenkian spent his last years, the Foundation is also home to a scientific investigation centre in Oeiras, and runs delegations in Paris and London -- cities where Calouste Gulbenkian lived. http://www.
News Article | March 2, 2017
MILAN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Newron Pharmaceuticals S.p.A. (“Newron”), a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel therapies for patients with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and pain, today announces its financial results for the year ended December 31, 2016, and reiterates material events with the outlook for 2017. In addition, Newron presents the approved agenda for the 2017 AGM. Xadago® launched in ten additional European countries Following the 2015 European approval and the launch in Germany, 2016 saw the launch of Xadago® in ten further European markets by Newron’s partner Zambon. The launch in, among others, Italy, Spain, the UK and Switzerland, means that a large and increasing number of patients across Europe can now be treated using Xadago®, the first New Chemical Entity in ten years to receive Marketing Authorization from the EU Commission for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. From the initial launch of Xadago® in Germany in May 2015, Newron has generated cumulated royalty revenues of EUR 2.2 million on product sales by its partner Zambon. Post-period, Zambon and Seqirus announced that they have entered a partnership for the registration and commercialisation of Xadago® in Australia and New Zealand. Following the news in March 2016 that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had issued a CRL for Xadago®, Newron announced, in July 2016, alongside its partners U.S. WorldMeds and Zambon, that the FDA no longer required the Company to perform any studies to clinically evaluate the potential abuse liability or dependence/withdrawal effects of Xadago®, the key subject of the CRL. In October 2016, Newron welcomed the FDA’s announcement that it considered the September 2016 re-submission of the U.S. NDA by the Company to be a complete Class 2 response. “We are hopeful that Xadago® will be approved in the U.S. on or before its PDUFA date of March 21 and that it will become available to U.S. patients, in the near future,” comments Ravi Anand, Newron’s Chief Medical Officer. Progress with Evenamide In April 2016, Newron presented a poster at the 5th Biennial Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference titled “Evenamide (NW–3509), a Putative Antipsychotic, Targets Abnormal Electrical Activity and Glutamatergic Abnormalities in Improving Psychotic Symptoms in Patients with Schizophrenia in a Phase II, Placebo-controlled Trial”. The encouraging results of this Phase IIa study were announced post period in January 2017. Evenamide met the study objectives of good tolerability, safety, and preliminary evidence of efficacy as an add-on therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Detailed results of the study will be presented at the 16th International Congress on Schizophrenia Research (ICOSR), in March, in San Diego (CA), USA. Studies initiated with Sarizotan In May 2016, the FDA approved Newron’s Investigational New Drug (IND) application for the evaluation of sarizotan for the treatment of patients with Rett syndrome. Following this approval, in July the Company initiated its potentially pivotal clinical STARS study that will evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of sarizotan in patients with Rett syndrome suffering from respiratory symptoms. The initiation of the STARS study is an important milestone within the development program for sarizotan. As of December 31, 2016, the study is enrolling patients in both the USA and Europe. As part of Newron’s wider commitment to addressing the needs of Rett syndrome patients, the Company is currently sponsoring a study to evaluate the burden of disease experienced by patients with this debilitating condition and their families. The study will be comprised of two global surveys, one to be completed by at least 750 caregivers and the other by at least 210 healthcare providers(HCP). The surveys have been developed in accordance with regulatory guidance, with the final versions being used for data collection in the USA, the UK, Italy, Germany and the Netherlands. Financial Summary (IFRS) In thousand EUR (except per share information) Newron’s 2016 Annual Report is available on http://www.newron.com/financial-report. Outlook for 2017 “We look forward to the decision on the forthcoming PDUFA date for Xadago® on or around March 21 and are confident that in 2017, we will see Xadago® become available to patients in the USA and additional European territories. We are highly encouraged by the potential of both sarizotan and Evenamide and we look forward to continuing the development of both in the ongoing year. Our innovative pipeline is progressing well and we will strengthen our position as a leading player in the CNS disease area. We started 2017 with funds totalling EUR 46.5 million, which we anticipate will take our Company towards the end of 2018, beyond expected key value inflexion points”, comments Newron’s Chief Executive Officer Stefan Weber. AGM 2017 Agenda Newron’s Board of Directors has approved the agenda below for the March 28, 2017, 10:30 am CET, ordinary Shareholders’ meeting, which will take place at the Company’s registered office in Bresso (Mi), Italy. The formal invitation to shareholders will be issued and disclosed in the statutory papers on or about March 2. The full invitation and supporting material will be made available on the Company’s website on the same date. The agenda is as follows: Dial-in to media/analyst conference on March 2, 2017, 9:15-10:15 am CET The Newron management team will present the 2016 full year results and provide an update and guidance for 2017. The conference call can be accessed via the following dial-in numbers: The slide deck used in the call is available at http://www.newron.com/downloads About Newron Pharmaceuticals Newron (SIX: NWRN) is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel therapies for patients with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and pain. The Company is headquartered in Bresso near Milan, Italy, with a subsidiary in Morristown, NJ, U.S.A. Xadago® (safinamide) has received marketing authorization for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease in the European Union and Switzerland and is commercialized by Newron’s partner Zambon. US WorldMeds holds the commercialization rights in the US. Meiji Seika has the rights to develop and commercialize the compound in Japan and other key Asian territories. In addition to Xadago® for Parkinson’s disease, Newron has a strong pipeline of promising treatments for rare disease patients at various stages of clinical development, including sarizotan for patients with Rett syndrome and ralfinamide for patients with specific rare pain indications. Newron is also developing Evenamide as the potential first add-on therapy for the treatment of patients with positive symptoms of schizophrenia. www.newron.com Important Notices This document contains forward-looking statements, including (without limitation) about (1) Newron’ s ability to develop and expand its business, successfully complete development of its current product candidates and current and future collaborations for the development and commercialisation of its product candidates and reduce costs (including staff costs), (2) the market for drugs to treat CNS diseases and pain conditions, (3) Newron’s anticipated future revenues, capital expenditures and financial resources, and (4) assumptions underlying any such statements. In some cases these statements and assumptions can be identified by the fact that they use words such as “ will”, anticipate”, “ estimate”, “ expect”, “ project”, “intend”, “ plan”, “believe”, “ target”, and other words and terms of similar meaning. All statements, other than historical facts, contained herein regarding Newron's strategy, goals, plans, future financial position, projected revenues and costs and prospects are forward-looking statements. By their very nature, such statements and assumptions involve inherent risks and uncertainties, both general and specific, and risks exist that predictions, forecasts, projections and other outcomes described, assumed or implied therein will not be achieved. Future events and actual results could differ materially from those set out in, contemplated by or underlying the forward-looking statements due to a number of important factors. These factors include (without limitation) (1) uncertainties in the discovery, development or marketing of products, including without limitation negative results of clinical trials or research projects or unexpected side effects, (2) delay or inability in obtaining regulatory approvals or bringing products to market, (3) future market acceptance of products, (4) loss of or inability to obtain adequate protection for intellectual property rights, (5) inability to raise additional funds, (6) success of existing and entry into future collaborations and licensing agreements, (7) litigation, (8) loss of key executive or other employees, (9) adverse publicity and news coverage, and (10) competition, regulatory, legislative and judicial developments or changes in market and/or overall economic conditions. Newron may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in forward-looking statements and assumptions underlying any such statements may prove wrong. Investors should therefore not place undue reliance on them. There can be no assurance that actual results of Newron's research programmes, development activities, commercialisation plans, collaborations and operations will not differ materially from the expectations set out in such forward-looking statements or underlying assumptions. Newron does not undertake any obligation to publicly up-date or revise forward looking statements except as may be required by applicable regulations of the SIX Swiss Exchange where the shares of Newron are listed. This document does not contain or constitute an offer or invitation to purchase or subscribe for any securities of Newron and no part of it shall form the basis of or be relied upon in connection with any contract or commitment whatsoever.