Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China

Yangling, China

Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China

Yangling, China
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Yu X.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Wu P.,Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | And 6 more authors.
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M | Year: 2013

Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN) consist of wireless devices that operate below the ground surface. These devices are buried completely under dense soil, thus electromagnetic wave transmits only through soil medium. However, the high attenuation that caused by soil is the main challenge for the electromagnetic wave transmission for WUSN. In this study, architecture of wireless underground sensor network communication was established. The experimental measurements were conducted using WUSN sensor nodes at three different carrier frequencies, respectively. Received signal strength and packet error rate were examined for communication links between the sensor nodes. The test results showed that carrier frequency was one of the main factors that affected electromagnetic wave propagation in the soil medium. It was concluded that the burial depth of the sensor nodes, horizontal inter-node distance, and soil volumetric water content have significant impacts on the signal strength and packet error rate during the electromagnetic wave propagation within a WUSN.


Yu X.,Northwest University, China | Wu P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Wu P.,Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Computers (Finland) | Year: 2013

Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN) are a natural extension of the wireless sensor networks (WSN) phenomenon to the underground environment. In this work, experimental measurements are presented at the frequency of 433 MHz, which show a good agreement with the theoretical studies. Experiments are run to examine the received signal strength and the packet error rate for aboveground-to-underground and underground-to-aboveground communication links. The results reveal that the effects of burial depth, inter-node distance and volumetric water content of the soil on the signal strength and packet error rate. The tests show that the communication range decreased when the soil moisture increased. © 2013 ACADEMY PUBLISHER.


Yu X.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Wu P.,Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Computational Information Systems | Year: 2012

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have gained world-wide attention in recent years, which has important applications such as remote environmental monitoring. The goal of our survey is to present the applications research of the wireless terrestrial sensor networks and the wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN). The tests show the potential feasibility of the WUSN with the use of powerful RF transceivers at 433MHz frequency. Finally, we conclude that the effects of burial depth, inter-node distance and volumetric water content of the soil on the signal strength and packet error rate. © 2012 Binary Information Press.


Yu X.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Wu P.,Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | And 5 more authors.
Computer Standards and Interfaces | Year: 2013

The hybrid wireless sensor network is a promising application of wireless sensor networking techniques. The main difference between a hybrid WSN and a terrestrial wireless sensor network is the wireless underground sensor network, which communicates in the soil. In this paper, a hybrid wireless sensor network architecture is introduced. The framework to deploy and operate a hybrid WSN is developed. Experiments were conducted using a soil that was 50% sand, 35% silt, and 15% clay; it had a bulk density of 1.5 g/cm 3 and a specific density of 2.6 cm - 3. The experiment was conducted for several soil moistures (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%) and three signal frequencies (433, 868 and 915 MHz). The results show that the radio signal path loss is smallest for low frequency signals and low moisture soils. Furthermore, the node deployment depth affected signal attenuation for the 433 MHz signal. The best node deployment depth for effective transmission in a wireless underground sensor network was determined. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yu X.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Yu X.,Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | Wu P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | And 3 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

The wireless sensor network technology was researched. Some wireless underground sensor network nodes and a sink node based on embedded technology and RF technology were designed innovatively. WUSN node consists of sensor, the processor, wireless communication module and power module, including processor using MSP430 microcontroller, RF modules adopting nRF905 communication module which having 433/868/915 MHz 3 ISM channel, the sink node is made up RF transceiver module, the core control circuit, information processing, data storage, LCD module and power supply. The nodes which acquired soil parameters information were regularly distributed in the monitoring area. The sink node collected the information of nodes that were sent in way of a single jumping or multiple hops and implemented fusion, analysis, processing, storage and display of information. For 50% sands, 35%silt, and 15% clay, a bulk density of 1.5 g/cm3 and a specific density of 2.6 / cm3, test for different soil moisture (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) in three different frequencies, result shows that radio signal path loss is the minimum in the low frequency and low moisture. Moreover, the changes of node deployed depth (0.2 m, 0.4 m, 0.6 m,0.8 m, 1m, 1.2 m, 1.4 m, 1.6m, 1.8 m and 2m) affected signal attenuation under 433MHz, it is concluded that the best WUSN node buried depth for effective transmission. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Yu X.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Wu P.,Research Institute of Water Saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | And 5 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

In recent years, many applications have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). One of these is agriculture, where WSN can play an important role in the handling and management of water resources for agricultural irrigation and so on. The WSN suffer from intensive human involvement and delay of information. This paper shows that the wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN), which communicates in the soil is different from the terrestrial WSN. WUSN devices are deployed completely below ground and do not require any wired connections. Each device contains all necessary sensors, memory, a processor, a radio, an antenna and a power source. Here, the WUSN architecture for agriculture information system is introduced. The framework to deploy and operate the WUSN is developed. Based on the framework, WUSN in different frequency, buried depth and volumetric water content of soil are tested and results are discussed. © 2012 Academic Journals.


Zhang Z.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Zhang Z.,Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | Wu P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu P.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Information and Computational Science | Year: 2012

An advanced stand-alone wireless embedded network has been developed recently for monitoring of soil property at multiple depths and different soil water contents. Wireless Underground Sensor Networks (WUSN) consists of wireless devices that operate below the ground surface. These devices are buried completely under dense soil. WUSN is a specialized kind of wireless sensor network that mainly focuses on the use of sensors that communicate through soil. This paper presents existing wireless sensor network technology. Here, the main research for wireless underground sensor network including design of WUSN node and experiment test. Based on the test model, research tests and results are discussed. The test of experiment was evaluated based on the path loss and bit error rate under different volumetric water content of the soil. The wireless underground sensor networks could provide users an easy access of real-time field data. 1548-7741/Copyright © 2012 Binary Information Press.


Yu X.,Northwest University, China | Yu X.,Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | Han W.,Northwest University, China | Han W.,Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Control and Automation | Year: 2015

Aiming at make effective use of variables control, wireless sensor and monitoring, embedded and wireless communications technology in industrial fields to make intelligent precision irrigation in crops the article designed a closed-loop remote monitoring system of distributed precision irrigation by using Citect configuration software, hybrid sensor networks including wireless sensor networks (WSN) and wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN), ARM9 microprocessor and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) module. The system consists of monitor computer, irrigation monitor controller, wireless sensor networks, GPRS wireless communication module and valves, in which the wireless sensor networks adopt hybrid topology above and below ground, the controllers utilizes embedded technology to control irrigation water yield that applied to each specific unit according to soil water content. The Citect configuration is used to manage data and HMI by the remote monitoring center, which can conduct a more high-level monitoring through web publishing. The results showed that the data sampling interval is set for 30 min, 4 groups WSN nodes were chosen, which the system could get soil temperature, humidity and soil water content in 5cm and 35cm depth, intelligent irrigation can save water about 25% compare with normal irrigation. This system realizes online automatic monitoring of crop precise irrigation, a hybrid wireless sensor network model for both aboveground and underground is creatively established, which is also the foundation for further study. © 2015 SERSC.


Zhang Z.,Northwest University, China | Zhang Z.,Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | Yu X.,Northwest University, China | Yu X.,Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Control and Automation | Year: 2015

Wireless Underground Sensor Networks (WUSN) have the potential to impact a wide variety of novel applications including intelligent irrigation, soil information monitoring, etc, the internet of tings for water-saving agriculture. WUSN consist of wireless devices that operate below the ground surface. These devices are buried completely under dense soil. The main difference between WUSN and the terrestrial wireless sensor network is the communication medium. This work provides an extensive overview of the research and application situations in agricultural internet of things for WUSN. The water-saving agricultural internet of things based on WUSN architecture is developed. Here, the main research for the underground communication channel including methods for predicting signal losses in an underground link. Based on the test model, research tests and results are discussed. © 2015 SERSC.


Zhang Z.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Zhang Z.,Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | Han W.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Han W.,Research Institute of Water saving Agriculture of Arid Regions of China | Chen J.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

At present, in view of the status that the common DC power supply output voltage is fixed single, non-adjustable and practicality poor, this paper introduces a kind of numerical control power system that has many source output by using switch power supply circuit technology. The output voltage of the power based on single chip technology is numerical control adjustment. The major component of the power is voltage regulator circuit, input over-voltage protection circuit, output over-voltage protection circuit, DC/AC conversion circuit, filter circuit and full-bridge circuit. The power can offer a variety of different stable voltage output values and has display function. Through the PROTEUS software simulation and circuit testing, output effect of the power is good, practicability is great, and can be used as a variety of portable electrical universal power supply. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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