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Gorecki R.S.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Gorecki M.T.,University of Life Sciences in Poznan
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2010

Sheep wool can be a waste products of sheep husbandry. Its safe utilization evokes several serious problems. Therefore, it was of interest to check out the usefulness of wool as a fertilizer and/or substrate. The aim of the experiments reported in this paper was to evaluate the effect of the washed sheep wool used as an amendment to peat-based growing substrate on growth and yield of tomato, sweet pepper, and eggplant. The layer of wool was spread on 5 cm thick strata of substrate and covered with the same substrate at a rate of 10 g wool per 1 dm3 of substrate. Plants were grown individually in containers. It was stated that the addition of wool caused up to 33% higher yields, especially for tomato and pepper. Wool amendment caused changes in nutrients content of substrate and leaves. Thus, sheep wool can serve as a valuable and environmentally friendly fertilizer.

Grabowska A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Nowicki M.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Kwinta J.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2011

On the cross-roads of main carbon and nitrogen metabolic pathways, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, E. C. 1. 4. 1. 2) carries out the reaction of reductive amination of 2-oxoglutarate to glutamate (the anabolic activity; NAD(P)H-GDH), and the reverse reaction of oxidative deamination of glutamic acid (the catabolic activity; NAD(P)+-GDH). To date, there have been no reports on identification of GDH genes in cereals. Here, we report cloning and biochemical characterization of the GDH from germinating triticale seeds, a common Polish cereal. A single TsGDH1 gene is 1,620 bp long, while its 1,236 bp long open reading frame encodes a protein of 411 amino acids of high homology with the published GDH protein sequences from other plants. Phylogenetic analyses locate the TsGDH1 among other monocotyledonous proteins and among the sequences of the β-type subunit of plant GDHs. Changes in TsGDH1 expression and the dynamics of enzyme activity in germinating seeds confirm the existence of one TsGDH isoform with varying expression and activity patterns, depending on the tissue localization and stage of germination. The four-step purification method (including the anionite chromatography using HPLC) resulted in a protein preparation with a high-specific activity and purification factor of approx. 230. The purified enzyme exhibited an absolute specificity towards 2-oxoglutarate (NAD(P)H-GDH), or towards l-glutamate in the reverse reaction (NAD(P)+-GDH), while its low Km constants towards all substrates and co-enzymes may suggest its aminating activity during germination, or, alternatively, its capability to adjust the direction of the catalyzed reaction according to the metabolic necessity. © 2011 The Author(s).

Horbowicz M.,Siedlce University Of Natural Sciences And Humanities | Kosson R.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Wiczkowski W.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Koczkodaj D.,Siedlce University Of Natural Sciences And Humanities | Mitrus J.,Siedlce University Of Natural Sciences And Humanities
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2011

The effects of exogenously applied methyl jasmonate on content of biogenic amines: putrescine, spermidine, tyramine, cadaverine and 2-phenylethylamine in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) were investigated. The studies have shown that methyl jasmonate stimulates the conversion of l-phenylalanine into 2-phenylethylamine and increases the endogenous levels of putrescine in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. Simultaneous feeding the seedlings with l-phenylalanine and methyl jasmonate has indicated that conversion of l-phenylalanine into 2-phenylethylamine can be one of possible reasons, caused by the methyl jasmonate suppression of anthocyanins synthesis in hypocotyls. To our knowledge, the stimulation of conversion of l-phenylalanine into 2-phenylethylamine by methyl jasmonate, as found in the present study, is described for the first time in higher plants. © 2010 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Kosson R.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The effect of long-term storage at 0, 2, 8 and 18°C on content of some nutritive components, including pungent compounds - isothiocyanates (ITC), in processed horseradish (cream) and horseradish roots was studied. Freshly harvested roots of Polish horseradish contained higher content of analyzed allyl- and phenylethyl-isothiocyantes (AITC and PEITC) in comparison to horseradish of Hungarian origin. During long-term storage in cold room the changes of content of both isothicyanates were observed, but mean level of the pungent compounds: AITC and PEITC, remained relatively high, what is important for processing of the vegetable, and quality of products. During long term storage of both horseradish roots types a significant decline of ascorbic acid content was noted, but after 10 months storage period its level was still high. The significant changes of content of reducing sugars, total isothiocyanates and color indexes in horseradish cream after its storage were noted. The higher temperature of storage the higher content of reducing sugar in horseradish cream was observed. Content of AITC and especially PEITC in fresh horseradish cream was lower in comparison to non-processed horseradish roots. Contents of both isothiocyanates decreased significantly during storage period. The highest decline of isothiocyanates level was observed during first four months of storage. The higher temperature of storage (18°C) caused faster decline of both isothiocyanates concentration in horseradish cream.

Godzina M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Staniaszek M.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Kielkiewicz M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin | Year: 2010

Mi-1.2 gene, expressed in tomato plants, contributes to endogenous resistance against nematodes and some Hemiptera insects. The aim of this study was to screen the presence of dominant/recessive locus of the Mi-1.2 gene in tomato cultivars with different allelic combination using Mi23 SCAR method and to assess the capacity of the local potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas) population to develop on different tomato cultivars (dominant and recessive homozygotes in Mi-1.2 locus). The results showed that both Mi23 marker and potato aphid performance are relevant methods in screening tomato cultivars with a different allelic combination of Mi-1.2 gene. The assessment of biological potential of M. euphorbiae proved that, in comparison with control (tomato plants with recessive alleles of Mi-1.2 gene), the aphid mortality increased 9- and 4 - fold (in the first and second experimental series, respectively) and the female longevity decreased 3 - fold when fed on tomato cvs with dominant alleles of Mi-1.2 gene. Furthermore, the resistance against aphids manifests as an antibiosis mechanism in tomato plants carrying dominant alleles.

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