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Grabowska A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Nowicki M.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Kwinta J.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2011

On the cross-roads of main carbon and nitrogen metabolic pathways, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, E. C. 1. 4. 1. 2) carries out the reaction of reductive amination of 2-oxoglutarate to glutamate (the anabolic activity; NAD(P)H-GDH), and the reverse reaction of oxidative deamination of glutamic acid (the catabolic activity; NAD(P)+-GDH). To date, there have been no reports on identification of GDH genes in cereals. Here, we report cloning and biochemical characterization of the GDH from germinating triticale seeds, a common Polish cereal. A single TsGDH1 gene is 1,620 bp long, while its 1,236 bp long open reading frame encodes a protein of 411 amino acids of high homology with the published GDH protein sequences from other plants. Phylogenetic analyses locate the TsGDH1 among other monocotyledonous proteins and among the sequences of the β-type subunit of plant GDHs. Changes in TsGDH1 expression and the dynamics of enzyme activity in germinating seeds confirm the existence of one TsGDH isoform with varying expression and activity patterns, depending on the tissue localization and stage of germination. The four-step purification method (including the anionite chromatography using HPLC) resulted in a protein preparation with a high-specific activity and purification factor of approx. 230. The purified enzyme exhibited an absolute specificity towards 2-oxoglutarate (NAD(P)H-GDH), or towards l-glutamate in the reverse reaction (NAD(P)+-GDH), while its low Km constants towards all substrates and co-enzymes may suggest its aminating activity during germination, or, alternatively, its capability to adjust the direction of the catalyzed reaction according to the metabolic necessity. © 2011 The Author(s).

Godzina M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Staniaszek M.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Kielkiewicz M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin | Year: 2010

Mi-1.2 gene, expressed in tomato plants, contributes to endogenous resistance against nematodes and some Hemiptera insects. The aim of this study was to screen the presence of dominant/recessive locus of the Mi-1.2 gene in tomato cultivars with different allelic combination using Mi23 SCAR method and to assess the capacity of the local potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas) population to develop on different tomato cultivars (dominant and recessive homozygotes in Mi-1.2 locus). The results showed that both Mi23 marker and potato aphid performance are relevant methods in screening tomato cultivars with a different allelic combination of Mi-1.2 gene. The assessment of biological potential of M. euphorbiae proved that, in comparison with control (tomato plants with recessive alleles of Mi-1.2 gene), the aphid mortality increased 9- and 4 - fold (in the first and second experimental series, respectively) and the female longevity decreased 3 - fold when fed on tomato cvs with dominant alleles of Mi-1.2 gene. Furthermore, the resistance against aphids manifests as an antibiosis mechanism in tomato plants carrying dominant alleles.

In 2003-2004, the influence of mulches of winter cover crops on the population of the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) in white cabbage production with two levels of N fertilization was investigated. Winter cover crops (rye, hairy vetch and their mixture) reduced B. brassicae population on cabbage by 86.1% to 100%. The level of nitrogen fertilization of cabbage had no effect on the aphid population. In addition, it was found that higher levels of nitrogen fertilization can cause an increase in the population of B. brassicae when cabbage is grown in bare soil.

Kosson R.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Elkner K.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops
Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin | Year: 2010

Effect of storage period on biogenic amine content in sauerkraut produced from white head cabbage during spontaneous fermentation was investigated. Three cultivars of white head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. f. alba) of different harvest time, namely: Tekila F1, Agressor F1, and Tolerator F1 were used in process of sauerkraut production. Fresh cabbage before the fermentation and sauerkraut during its 90 day storage period were analyzed for polyamine and monoamine content. It was found that fresh cabbage contained only two polyamines: putrescine (<2 μg•g -1) and spermidine (<10 μg•g-1). Depending on storage period and year of experiment putrescine, spermidine, spermine, cadaverine, tryptamine and histamine were found in sauerkraut. Contents of particular amines in investigated sauerkraut are within the low range of given values by other authors. The results of the study showed that the biogenic amine content of fresh white cabbage and fermented product - sauerkraut - should not represent a risk for consumers. © Copyright by RIVC.

Dyki B.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Nowak R.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Stepowska A.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops
Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin | Year: 2010

The aim of the study was to examine the morphological diversity of flowers of male-sterile (CMS) and male-fertile breeding lines of carrot and its influence on seed setting.In examined male-sterile carrot population stamens are transformed into petal-like structures of different shapes. It was observed that in some anther-like structures sporogenic tissue degenerates. It is supposed that decrease of seeds productivity of carrot breeding lines could be caused by morphological abnormalities of mother and father-parental flowers. Degeneration of pollen, the absence of endothecium, which is responsible for opening the anthers and growth of pollen tubes on the external area of the pistil, decreasing the number of functional pollen influence negatively fertilization. Moreover, other specific traits of male-sterile mother plants, as reduction of nectaries size, pistils deformation, ovule and embryo degeneration also inhibit process of seed setting. The lowest amount of seeds produced plants with multiple stigma pistils and nectaries deformations. Male-sterile plants with white flower petals, big nectaries, exposed, doubled pistils and big ovaries produced more seeds than the other mother plants.

Szafranska K.,University of Lodz | Cvikrova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Kowalska U.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Gorecka K.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | And 3 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2011

Effect of Cu (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μM) on the regeneration of carrot (Daucus carota L.) androgenic embryos of var. Feria and 1014 breeding line as well as on polyamines (PAs), proline contents, lipid peroxidation and Cu accumulation after 16 and 24 weeks was studied. Generally, growth of Feria rosettes was better than that of the 1014 line. Significant increase in Cu content in tissues was observed in both cultures grown at the highest Cu concentration (100 μM). The dose-dependent increase in proline in the 16-week-old culture of Feria was observed, while in 1014 its level increased only at the highest applied Cu concentration. On the contrary, in the 24-week-old culture, significant increase in the proline content were observed at 100 and 10 μM Cu in Feria and in 1014 breeding lines, respectively. The decline in proline content and decrease in embryogenic ability in the line 1014 grown in the presence of the highest Cu concentration for 24 weeks may indicate that a certain threshold of intracellular Cu was crossed. Both in Feria and 1014 line, putrescine and spermidine were the most abundant free PAs. The increased content of proline and higher contents of the constitutive free putrescine and spermidine in Feria cultivated for 24 weeks at the highest Cu concentration point to better protection of this cultivar. Thus, it seems that the higher tolerance of Feria to oxidative stress (characterized by lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value) may result from higher constitutive level of PAs. These data confirm the suggestion that variations in PA levels depend not only on the concentrations of metals tested, but also on plant species and cultivars. The role of PAs and proline in the carrot cultures treated with Cu is discussed. © 2010 The Author(s).

Gorecki R.S.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Gorecki M.T.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2010

Sheep wool can be a waste products of sheep husbandry. Its safe utilization evokes several serious problems. Therefore, it was of interest to check out the usefulness of wool as a fertilizer and/or substrate. The aim of the experiments reported in this paper was to evaluate the effect of the washed sheep wool used as an amendment to peat-based growing substrate on growth and yield of tomato, sweet pepper, and eggplant. The layer of wool was spread on 5 cm thick strata of substrate and covered with the same substrate at a rate of 10 g wool per 1 dm3 of substrate. Plants were grown individually in containers. It was stated that the addition of wool caused up to 33% higher yields, especially for tomato and pepper. Wool amendment caused changes in nutrients content of substrate and leaves. Thus, sheep wool can serve as a valuable and environmentally friendly fertilizer.

Gorecka K.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Kowalska U.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Krzyzanowska D.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Kiszczak W.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops
Journal of Applied Genetics | Year: 2010

Microspores were cultured on the modified B5 liquid medium containing 2.4D (0.1 mg L NAA (0.1 mgL-1), L-glutamine (500 mgL-1), L-serine (100 mgL-1), and sucrose (100 gL 1). The developmental stages of microspores and divisions were observed. Initially, the formation of binuclear and multicellular structures was noticed. Plants regenerated in the cultures in which the tetrad stage of microsporogenesis had predominated. Embryoids were still forming 24 weeks after the cultures were set up. Six weeks after the transfer of androgenetic embryos onto the B5 regeneration medium, they were converted into complete plants. Out of 90 androgenetic plants planted in a growth chamber, 42 plants adapted to the new conditions. All of those plants proved to be diploids in cytometric analysis.

Horbowicz M.,Siedlce University Of Natural Sciences And Humanities | Kosson R.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Wiczkowski W.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Koczkodaj D.,Siedlce University Of Natural Sciences And Humanities | Mitrus J.,Siedlce University Of Natural Sciences And Humanities
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2011

The effects of exogenously applied methyl jasmonate on content of biogenic amines: putrescine, spermidine, tyramine, cadaverine and 2-phenylethylamine in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) were investigated. The studies have shown that methyl jasmonate stimulates the conversion of l-phenylalanine into 2-phenylethylamine and increases the endogenous levels of putrescine in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. Simultaneous feeding the seedlings with l-phenylalanine and methyl jasmonate has indicated that conversion of l-phenylalanine into 2-phenylethylamine can be one of possible reasons, caused by the methyl jasmonate suppression of anthocyanins synthesis in hypocotyls. To our knowledge, the stimulation of conversion of l-phenylalanine into 2-phenylethylamine by methyl jasmonate, as found in the present study, is described for the first time in higher plants. © 2010 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Kosson R.,Research Institute of Vegetable Crops
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The effect of long-term storage at 0, 2, 8 and 18°C on content of some nutritive components, including pungent compounds - isothiocyanates (ITC), in processed horseradish (cream) and horseradish roots was studied. Freshly harvested roots of Polish horseradish contained higher content of analyzed allyl- and phenylethyl-isothiocyantes (AITC and PEITC) in comparison to horseradish of Hungarian origin. During long-term storage in cold room the changes of content of both isothicyanates were observed, but mean level of the pungent compounds: AITC and PEITC, remained relatively high, what is important for processing of the vegetable, and quality of products. During long term storage of both horseradish roots types a significant decline of ascorbic acid content was noted, but after 10 months storage period its level was still high. The significant changes of content of reducing sugars, total isothiocyanates and color indexes in horseradish cream after its storage were noted. The higher temperature of storage the higher content of reducing sugar in horseradish cream was observed. Content of AITC and especially PEITC in fresh horseradish cream was lower in comparison to non-processed horseradish roots. Contents of both isothiocyanates decreased significantly during storage period. The highest decline of isothiocyanates level was observed during first four months of storage. The higher temperature of storage (18°C) caused faster decline of both isothiocyanates concentration in horseradish cream.

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