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Dell B.,Murdoch University | Zeng J.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2016

Imbalanced fertilization of nursery stock can lead to nutrient disorders which affect plant quality and productivity. Castanopsis hystrix Miq. is a plantation hardwood species that is being widely established in south China. Nutrient disorders are common in planting stock and difficult to manage, as the causes are unknown. Therefore, macronutrient deletion fertilizer treatments were applied to C. hystrix seedlings and foliar symptoms, growth performance, leaf area, photosynthetic pigments and foliar nutrient interactions were determined. The appearance of foliar symptoms including chlorosis, marginal scorching, necrotic spotting and leaf malformation will be useful for the initial diagnosis of fertilizer imbalances in this species in forest nurseries. Vector analysis revealed that foliar nutrient interactions tended to be enhanced under nutrient imbalance, and these findings may provide a preliminary guideline for confirming macronutrient disorders of this species in nursery production. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Tong F.-C.,University of South China | Xiao Y.-H.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Wang Q.-L.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2010

Soil nematode communities were investigated in the Changbai Mountain in Broad-leaved Korean Pine forest, Korean Pine and spruce-fix mixed forest, Dark Coniferous forest, Erman's birch forest and Alpine tundra along different altitude gradients from 762 m to 2 200 m a. s. l. Soil animal samples were collected from the litter layer and the soil depth of 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm at each site in the spring of 2001 and 2002. In total 27 nematode families and 60 genera were observed. The dominant genera were Plectus Bastian and Tylenchus Bastian and most of them live in litter layer. The total number of soil nematode was significantly correlated with soil moisture (r=0.357; p<0.01). Nematodes were classified in bacterivores, fungivores, plant parasites, omnivores-predators, and omnivores according to known feeding habitats or stoma and esophageal morphology. Species richness of fungivorous nematode was higher than others in different vegetation communities and soil depths. The total number of soil nematode and trophic groups varied significantly (p<0.05) in response to different soil depths. The fungivore/bacterivore ratio (F/B) and the ratio of (fungivores + bacterivores)/plant-parasites (WI) also changed significantly (p<0.05) in different soil depths. In conclusion, soil moisture is proved to be one of the most important variables affecting nematode density and trophic composition, and the altitude gradient does not significantly affect the ecological indices of soil nematode such as trophic diversity (TD) and the Shannon index (H′). © Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.


Lu J.K.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Dou Y.J.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Zhu Y.J.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Wang S.K.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2014

Three slow-growing rhizobial strains, designated RITF806T, RITF807 and RITF211, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon grown in Ganzhou city, Jiangxi Province, China, had been previously defined, based on amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis, as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To clarify their taxonomic position, these strains were further analysed and compared with reference strains of related bacteria using a polyphasic approach. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates formed a group that was closely related to 'Bradyrhizobium rifense' CTAW71, with a similarity value of 99.9 %. In phylogenetic analyses of the housekeeping and symbiotic gene sequences, the three strains formed a distinct lineage within the genus Bradyrhizobium, which was consistent with the results of DNA-DNA hybridization. In analyses of cellular fatty acids and phenotypic features, some differences were found between the novel group and related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, indicating that these three strains constituted a novel group distinct from any recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Based on the data obtained in this study, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, for which the name Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense sp. nov. is proposed, with RITF806T (= CCBAU 101088T = JCM 19881T) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content of strain RITF806T is 64.6 mol% (Tm). © 2014 IUMS.


Pei N.-C.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Kress W.J.,Smithsonian Institution | Chen B.-F.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Erickson D.L.,Smithsonian Institution | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Plant Ecology | Year: 2015

Aims: Exploring flowering patterns and detecting processes are essential when probing into the nature of reproductive traits during the life history and the interactions among different evolutionary clades. Such patterns are believed to be influenced by many factors, but quantifying these impacts at the community-level remains poorly understood. Methods: We investigated the flowering patterns based on long-term herbarium records in a given area from subtropical forest regions in southern China. We obtained 5258 herbarium voucher specimens collected from the Dinghushan National Nature Reserve (DNNR) belonging to 166 families, 943 genera and 2059 species and examined the month when each species was flowering during the period 1920-2007. Important Findings: The results showed that plants flowered sequentially almost throughout the whole year, showing the characteristics of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests. Flowering spectrums of the entire flora and the four life forms exhibited a clear unimodality that is probably typical of subtropical forest communities. Flowering patterns of the DNNR were positively correlated with mean rainfall, mean air temperature and mean sunshine duration. Median flowering dates of the 38 large species-rich families ranged from early April to late August; 25 families exhibited significant unimodal distribution patterns, whereas the remaining families were unclear or bimodal. Median flowering dates of the 10 most species-rich genera ranged from middle May to later July. While the results are consistent with climatic factors playing a general role in flowering patterns, median flowering dates varied significantly among species-rich families and genera, suggesting that phylogenies could provide specific constraints in subtropical forests. © 2015 © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Botanical Society of China. All rights reserved.


Liao B.-W.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Zhang Q.-M.,CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology
Wetland Science | Year: 2014

This paper systematically summarized the change characteristic of mangroves and their species composition. The geographical distribution of mangrove plants and their growth status are greatly affected by many external factors, including air temperature, ocean currents, waves, bank slopes, salinity, tides, and sediment and so on. Mangroves in China are mainly distributed in the southeast coast of the tropical and subtropical coastal bays, estuaries and other areas under waters. From Hainan Island towards the north, climate zones extend from central tropical zone (the south of Hainan Island), to northern tropical zone (the north of Hainan Island, south of Leizhou Peninsula and Taiwan Island), to southern subtropical zone (Guangxi province, Guangdong province, Fujian province, the south of Taiwan Island and southern coastal areas of Fujian province), to northern subtropical zone (the north of Fujian province and coastal areas of Zhejiang province). The area and population diversity of mangrove plants decline significantly with increasing latitudes, and forest stand also transforms from arbor to shrub, which fully demonstrated the macroscopically control effect of air temperature for the geographical distribution of mangrove plants. In terms of mangrove cover change, the total area of mangroves in China has been dramatically shrunk from 250 thousand ha in history, to 42 thousand ha in 1950, and to 22.8 thousand ha in 2001. In 2001, descending order of existing area of mangroves in China's major provinces is: Guangdong province (9 084.0 ha), Guangxi province (8 374.9 ha), Hainan (3 930.3 ha), Fujian province(615.1 ha), Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (510 ha), Taiwan province (278 ha), Zhejiang province (19.9 ha), Macau Special Administrative Region (60 ha). For the species composition of mangrove plants, adding 2 species (Sonneratia apetala and Laguncularia racemosa) of successful introduced true-mangrove plants from abroad, now there is total 38 species of mangrove plants in China, including 26 species of true-mangrove plants and 12 semi-mangrove plants.


Lu J.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2010

We identified four strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and their plant growth-promoting ability. Four PGPB strains were genetically analyzed by PCR detection of nifH and 16S rRNA gene. Phosphate-solubilizing and nitrogen-fixation capacity were examined by spectrophotometric quantification and acetylene reduction assay, respectively. Effect of strain inoculation on plant growth was also evaluated. Phylogenetic analysis based on nifH and 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain HN011 was mostly related to Vibrio natriegens, and SZ7-1 and SZ7-2 resembled Klebsiella oxytoca. Although similarity of 16S rRNA sequence showed that SZ002 belongs to Paenibacillus sp., nifH gene of SZ002 had high sequence similarity with Klebsiella genus. Phosphate solubilization showed that insoluble phosphate was well solubilized in the liquid medium by all four strains of PGPB, which also had high nitrogen-fixation capacity. Plant dry weight, total N and total P were higher in some inoculated than in the non-inoculated plants (P < 0.05). Our results showed that all four strains of PGPB isolated from mangrove had both phosphate solubilization and nitrogen fixation ability, resulting in beneficial effects on growth.


Zhao Z.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Guo J.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Wang C.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Zeng J.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2015

We studied the formation of heartwood in Erythrophleum fordii Oliv., an endangered rosewood species, by cross-section analysis on 52 stumps aged 28–57 years and arbitrarily sampled from natural forests in South China. Width and area of heartwood were positively correlated with age and xylem width (XW), and were independent of annual radial growth. The proportions of heartwood and sapwood areas were equal at about 40 years. The heartwood formation process was simulated by linear regression of age and XW. © 2015 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Peng P.,South China Agricultural University | Li K.,South China Agricultural University | Liang K.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Xu K.,South China Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

In order to understand the effects of geographical provenances of teak on wood properties and improve the quality of afforestation in china, research was carried on wood properties of eight provenances of teak at age 27 in Ledong Country, Hainan Island. The slices revealed that the constructional characteristics from different geographical provenances of teak were very similar. But the effect of geographical provenance on teak wood properties was highly significant. The relationship results for properties of teak showed that properties of most wood species had the obvious relation with basic density, which can be used to guide the selection of the teak provenance in the early planting to improve the quality of teak. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.


Huang G.H.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Liang K.N.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Zhou Z.Z.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Xu J.M.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Ma H.M.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry
Silvae Genetica | Year: 2015

A total of 420 individuals belonged to 18 native teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) provenances from all four distributed countries and 10 introduced provenances were analyzed to for genetic variation, structure and genetic origin using SSR markers. The unbiased gene diversity for each provenance ranged from 0.4692 to 0.8523 with a mean value 0.6612, showing high variation within teak provenances and variation in India provenances was highest than in other countries' provenances. AMOVA analysis showed that the majority of variation existed within provenances (84.760%) and also substantial variation among countries (10.586%). As more as possible plus trees from large population should be selected or conserved in order to keep genetic variability for future improvement. Different countries populations should be preserved in the natural habitat or collected for ex site conservation with cooperation and region-wise strategies. A Mantel test revealed significant correlation between genetic distances and geographic distances of teak provenances (R=0.7355, P<0.001). The cluster analyses by UPGMA, PCA and STRUCTURE methods gave very similar results, showing India provenances were firstly differentiated, and Laos provenances clustered with Thailand provenances, then introduced provenances and Myanmar provenances successively joined in the clusters. The introduced provenances no. 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 27 and 28 appeared to be very closely linked to Laos provenances (especially no. 17) and Thailand provenances (especially no. 5 and 6), while provenances no. 21, 24, 26 may be originated from Myanmar provenance (especially no. 16).


Zhao Z.-G.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Lin K.-Q.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Guo J.-J.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry | Zeng J.,Research Institute of Tropical Forestry
Annals of Forest Research | Year: 2015

Erythrophleum fordii (Caesalpiniaceae; nitrogen fixing species) is one of traditional rosewood species indigenous to Southeast Asia and southern China. Slow growth and symptoms such as leaf discoloration, curling and defoliation were usually observed in the nursery and its young plantations due perhaps to deficiencies of specific nutrients. Here sand culture experiment was conducted for its seedlings to assess their visual foliar symptoms, growth performance and nutrient interaction in response to six macronutrient deficiencies. Leaves of E. fordii seedlings discolored in all treatments of nutrient deficiency, and sizes of both old and young leaves became small under nitrogen (N) deficiency, while only young leaves grew small under deficiencies of calcium (Ca) and sulphur (S). Seedling growth was inhibited significantly under deficiencies of N, potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) except that P deficiency increased diameter at root collar. The difference of seedling N concentration between –N and control was normally much smaller than those for other nutrient elements because –N seedling could acquire N by nitrogen fixation of nodules under N deficiency. In spite of this, N was still major limiting factor for plant growth under N deficiency. Besides in P deficiency, P was also the major limiting factor under deficiencies of magnesium (Mg), Ca and S, which indicated that P play an important role in nutrient demand and balance for E. fordii. Antagonism or synergism occurred widely between six macronutrients, especially for P, K and Ca, their concentrations increased or decreased in all six deficiency treatments in comparison with the control. The implications of these findings were also discussed with a case study on nutritional diagnosis for a young plantation of this species. © 2015, Editura Silvica. All rights reserved.

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