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New Philadelphia, PA, United States

Remakus S.,Research Institute of the Fox Chase Cancer Center | Remakus S.,Thomas Jefferson University | Rubio D.,Research Institute of the Fox Chase Cancer Center | Lev A.,Research Institute of the Fox Chase Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Cell Host and Microbe

Immunization with vaccinia virus (VACV), the virus comprising the smallpox vaccine, induces memory CD8+ T cells that protect from subsequent infections with smallpox in humans or the related ectromelia virus (ECTV) in mice. Memory CD8+ T cells largely mediate these effects by expanding into secondary effectors that secrete the antiviral cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and induce cytolysis via releasing factors such as perforin, which permeabilizes target cells. We show that protection from ECTV infection after VACV immunization depends on the initial memory cell frequency and ability of expanded secondary effectors to kill infected targets in a perforin-dependent manner. Although IFN-γ is essential for antiviral protection, it can be produced by either secondary effectors or concomitant primary effector CD8 + T cells recruited to the response. Thus, during lethal virus challenge, memory CD8+ T cells are required for cytolytic killing of infected cells, but primary effectors can play important roles by producing IFN-γ. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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