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Pibernik-Okanovic M.,University of Zagreb | Ajdukovic D.,University of Zagreb | Lovrencic M.V.,University of Zagreb | Hermanns N.,Research Institute of the Diabetes Academy Mergentheim

Background: The prevalence of mood difficulties in persons with diabetes is approximately twice that in the general population, affecting the health outcomes and patients' quality of life in an undesirable way. Although subsyndromal depression is an important predictor of a more serious clinical depression, it is often overlooked. This study aims to compare the effects of two non-pharmacological interventions for subsyndromal depression, psychoeducation and physical exercise, with diabetes treatment as usual on mood- and diabetes-related outcomes.Methods and Design: Type 2 diabetic patients aged 18-65 yrs. who report mood difficulties and the related need for help in a mail survey will be potential participants. After giving informed consent, they will be randomly assigned to one of the three groups (psychoeducation, physical activity, treatment as usual). Depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, health-related quality of life and diabetes self-care activities will be assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. A structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) will be performed at baseline and at one-year follow-up in order to determine the clinical significance of the patients' depressive symptoms. Disease-related data will be collected from patients' files and from additional physical examinations and laboratory tests.The two interventions will be comparable in terms of format (small group work), duration (six sessions) and approach (interactive learning; supporting the participants' active roles). The group treated as usual will be informed about their screening results and about the importance of treating depression. They will be provided with brief re-education on diabetes and written self-help instructions to cope with mood difficulties.Primary outcomes will be depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes will be glycaemic control, diabetes-related distress, self-management of diabetes and health-related quality of life. Tertiary outcomes will be biochemical markers reflecting common pathophysiological processes of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative damage that are assumed to be intertwined in both diabetes and depression. The mixed-effect linear model will be used to compare the outcome variables.Power analysis has indicated that the two intervention groups and the control group should comprise 59 patients to enable detection of clinically meaningful differences in depressive symptoms with a power of 80% and alpha = 0.05. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis.Trial Registration: ISRCTN: ISRCTN05673017. © 2011 Pibernik-Okanović et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Schnell O.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Hinzmann R.,Roche Holding AG | Kulzer B.,Research Institute of the Diabetes Academy Mergentheim | Freckmann G.,University of Ulm | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology

Reliability of blood glucose (BG) measurements is a prerequisite for successful diabetes management. Publications on the evaluation of self-monitored glucose values, however, are frequently characterized by a confusion in terminology. We provide an inventory of key terms such as accuracy, trueness, precision, traceability, calibration, and matrix effect to avoid future misunderstanding. Definitions are taken from the metrological literature and international norms and explained in a language intended for nonspecialists in metrology. The terms are presented in light of the need to apply generally accepted definitions. In addition, a description of requirements and components for a sound evaluation of BG measurement systems is presented. These factors will also enable improvement in future comparisons of study results. © Diabetes Technology Society. Source

Ehrmann D.,Research Institute of the Diabetes Academy Mergentheim | Ehrmann D.,University of Bamberg | Hermanns N.,Research Institute of the Diabetes Academy Mergentheim | Hermanns N.,University of Bamberg | And 5 more authors.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics

Background: Carbohydrate estimation and bolus calculation are two important skills for handling intensive insulin therapy and effectively using bolus calculators. Structured assessment of both skills is lacking. A new tool for the assessment of skills in carbohydrate estimation and bolus calculation was developed and evaluated. Materials and Methods: A new assessment tool (SMART) was developed that included 10 items for bolus calculation and 12 items for carbohydrate estimation. In total, 411 patients on intensive insulin treatment were recruited. Different parameters of glycemic control were used as validity criteria. Results: The SMART tool achieved good reliability for the assessment of bolus calculation (Cronbach's α = 0.78) and sufficient reliability for the assessment of carbohydrate estimation (Cronbach's α = 0.67). A good bolus calculation skill was significantly associated with lower glycated hemoglobin values (r = -0.27), lower mean blood glucose levels (r = -0.29), and higher fluctuation of blood glucose control (r = -0.43). A good carbohydrate estimation skill was significantly associated with a lower frequency of severe hyperglycemia (r = -0.27) and a higher frequency of euglycemia (r = 0.26). Conclusions: SMART is a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of both skills. Bolus calculation as well as carbohydrate estimation was associated with glycemic control. With the help of SMART, important skills for the management of intensive insulin therapy can be assessed separately. Thus, in clinical practice patients in need of assistance from a bolus calculator can be identified. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Schmitt A.,Research Institute of the Diabetes Academy Mergentheim | Schmitt A.,German Diabetes Center Mergentheim | Reimer A.,Research Institute of the Diabetes Academy Mergentheim | Reimer A.,German Diabetes Center Mergentheim | And 8 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine

Aims To estimate the associations between insufficient diabetes acceptance and relevant diabetes outcomes. Methods A total of 320 patients completed questionnaires on diabetes non-acceptance (the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire), diabetes distress (the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale), depressive mood (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), coping with illness (the Freiburg Questionnaire of Coping with Illness), self-care activities (the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure) and quality of life (the Short Form-36 Health Questionnaire). A six-item version of the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire showing good reliability and validity was established, and the associations between insufficient acceptance and clinical outcomes were estimated. Results Higher diabetes non-acceptance correlated significantly with less active coping (-0.37), reduced self-care (-0.43) and higher HbA1c levels (0.31), higher diabetes distress (0.53) and more depressive symptoms (0.36). Correlations of diabetes non-acceptance with diabetes self-care/glycaemic control were significantly higher than were those of depressive mood or diabetes distress with these criteria. Conclusions Low diabetes acceptance is associated with impaired self-care and glycaemic control. Assessment of diabetes acceptance may facilitate the detection of patients at high risk and may present an essential target for treatments to improve diabetes control that is more relevant than elevated depressive mood or diabetes distress. © 2014 The Author. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK. Source

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