Research Institute of Strategy for Prevention

Tokyo, Japan

Research Institute of Strategy for Prevention

Tokyo, Japan
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Hirata A.,Keio University | Okamura T.,Keio University | Sugiyama D.,Keio University | Kuwabara K.,Keio University | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology | Year: 2017

Background Studies have shown significant associations of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. The impact on the general population is an important public health issue. However, the population attributable fraction (PAF) of CVD because of CKD and/or DM in a general population is uncertain. Methods We followed 7229 participants (age: ≥30 years) with no history of CVD in a Japanese community. We divided participants into four categories according to CKD and/or DM and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) of CVD mortality for each category using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, dyslipidemia, smoking and alcohol consumption. In addition, PAFs of CVD were estimated among populations with CKD and/or DM. Results During 20-year follow-up, 488 participants died. HRs for CVD were 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-2.30] with DM only, 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08-1.86) with CKD only and 2.37 (95% CI: 1.40-4.01) with CKD + DM. In men, the corresponding HRs for CVD were 1.88 (95% CI: 1.19-2.97), 1.71 (95% CI: 1.15-2.56) and 3.26 (95% CI: 1.69-6.30), respectively; the corresponding PAFs of CVD were 4.1%, 5.1% and 2.9%, respectively. PAFs for CVD among women were lower than those in men, 1.6% for DM only, 2.0% for CKD only and 0.7% for CKD + DM. Conclusions PAFs of CVD mortality due to CKD and/or DM were not so high in past 20 years; however, they might increase in the future because of recent increase in prevalence of these in Japanese population. © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.


Okuda N.,University of Human Arts and Sciences | Miura K.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Okayama A.,Research Institute of Strategy for Prevention | Okamura T.,Keio University | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background/Objectives:There have been few studies on the association of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Asian populations where both dietary habits and disease structure are different from western countries. No study in Asia has found its significant association with stroke. We examined associations of FV intake with mortality risk from total CVD, stroke and coronary heart diseases (CHDs) in a representative Japanese sample.Methods:A total of 9112 participants aged from 24-year follow-up data in the NIPPON DATA80, of which baseline data were obtained in the National Nutrition Survey Japan in 1980, were studied. Dietary data were obtained from 3-day weighing dietary records. Participants were divided into sex-specific quartiles of energy adjusted intake of FV. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated between strata of the total of FV intake, fruit intake and vegetable intake. The adjustment included age, sex, smoking, drinking habit and energy adjusted intakes of sodium and some other food groups.Results:Participants with higher FV intake were older, ate more fish, milk and dairy products and soybeans and legumes and ate less meat. Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% confidence interval; P; P for trend) for the highest versus the lowest quartile of the total of FV intake was 0.74 (0.61-0.91; 0.004; 0.003) for total CVD, 0.80 (0.59-1.09; 0.105; 0.036) for stroke and 0.57 (0.37-0.87; 0.010; 0.109) for CHD.Conclusions:The results showed that higher total intake of FVs was significantly associated with reduced risk of CVD mortality in Japan. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Tanaka F.,9 1 Uchimaru | Komi R.,9 1 Uchimaru | Makita S.,9 1 Uchimaru | Ishibashi Y.,Iwate Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2016

Background: Recent studies indicate that, in people with diabetes or hypertension and in the general population, low-grade albuminuria (LGA) below the microalbuminuria threshold is a predictor for incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. However, it remains unclear whether LGA predicts the risk of CVD incidence and death in nondiabetic and normotensive individuals. Methods: A total of 3599 individuals aged not less than 40 years from the general population who are free of CVD in nondiabetic and normotensive individuals with preserved glomerular filtration rate were followed for CVD incidence and all-cause death. LGA was defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) less than 30mg/g. It was examined whether there is an association between LGA and CVD incidence or all-cause death. Results: During the average 5.9 years of follow-up, 61 individuals had first CVD events, and 85 individuals died. The hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD incidence and all-cause death after full adjustment by potential confounders increased significantly in the top tertile of LGA (UACR ≥ 9.6mg/g for men, ≥ 12.0mg/g for women) compared with the first tertile [HR=2.79, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41-5.52, HR=1.69, 95% CI, 1.00-2.84, respectively]. Population-attributable fractions of the top tertile of LGA for CVD incidence and all-cause death were 37.9 and 20.1%, respectively. Conclusion: In apparently healthy individuals with optimal blood pressure and no diabetes, LGA independently predicts CVD incidence and all-cause death, particularly with the large contribution to the excessive incidence of CVD. © Copyright 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Tohoku University, Research Institute of Strategy for Prevention, University of Human Arts and Sciences, Keio University and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension | Year: 2016

The influence of alcohol intake on hypertension may vary depending on the flushing response, but this relationship has not been confirmed. The relationship between alcohol intake and hypertension was examined according to the flushing response in a representative sample of the Japanese population. Participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2010 were asked to participate in the baseline survey of NIPPON DATA2010. Here, we investigated the relationship between alcohol intake and hypertension according to the flushing response. Statistical analyses were performed in a cross-sectional manner using multiple logistic regression models after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, present illness of diabetes mellitus and present illness of dyslipidemia. Of the 1139 men and 1263 women, 659 and 463, respectively, had hypertension. Among the men, alcohol intake was positively associated with hypertension, regardless of the flushing response (P for linear trend both <0.05). This positive relationship was observed for both users and non-users of antihypertensive drugs. No interaction with the flushing response was observed (P for interaction=0.360). In women, although the direction differed between flushers and non-flushers, the association between alcohol intake and hypertension was not significant, regardless of flushing response. In conclusion, In Japanese men, alcohol intake was positively associated with hypertension in a manner that was not influenced by the flushing response.


Satoh M.,Tohoku University | Ohkubo T.,Teikyo University | Asayama K.,Teikyo University | Asayama K.,Tohoku University | And 9 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2015

No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; P<0.0001 versus group with systolic BP <120 mm Hg and total cholesterol <4.7 mmol/L). The adjusted hazard ratios of systolic BP (per 20 mm Hg) increased with increases in total cholesterol categories (hazard ratio, 1.52; P<0.0001 in group with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L). Similarly, the adjusted hazard ratios of total cholesterol increased with increases in systolic BP categories (P for interaction ≤0.04). Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.


Okuda N.,University of Human Arts and Sciences | Stamler J.,Northwestern University | Brown I.J.,Imperial College London | Ueshima H.,Shiga University of Medical Science | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2014

Objective: Habitual high-salt intake raises blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular diseases. To prevent/control these risks, reduced salt diet (RSD) is recommended in many countries and some people report practicing it; however, little is known about actual achievement. This population-based study assessed level of 24-h dietary sodium intake of participants reporting RSD and others. Method: Participants were 4680 men and women ages 40-59 years randomly selected from 17 populations in People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, UK and USA, for an observational study on diet and blood pressure (INTERMAP). Daily sodium intake was determined by two timed 24-h urine collections. Antihypertensive treatment status and RSD were ascertained by questionnaire. Results: Participants reporting RSD were few; 3.1% (Japan), 1.3% (PRC), 2.5% (UK), 7.2% (USA); 15.1, 7.9, 16.7 and 16.8% of people with treated hypertension. For those reporting RSD, 24-h urinary sodium excretion was significantly, but only modestly lower than for others, by 17.9 mmol/day (Japan), 56.7 (PRC) and 14.7 (USA), but higher by 10.5 in UK. Sodium intakes for participants reporting RSD remained higher than recommended; 181.0 mmol/day (Japan), 171.5 (PRC), 155.2 (UK) and 148.9 (USA). For these people, as for others, main sources of salt were processed foods in Japan, UK and USA; in PRC, salt added in preparation at home. Conclusion: Enhanced sustained efforts are needed to raise general awareness of the harmful effects of salt on health and the benefits of salt reduction. Population approaches are needed to reduce salt content of processed foods and restaurant meals. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | Shiga University of Medical Science, Teikyo University, University of Human Arts and Sciences, Research Institute of Strategy for Prevention and Keio University
Type: | Journal: European journal of preventive cardiology | Year: 2016

Studies have shown significant associations of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. The impact on the general population is an important public health issue. However, the population attributable fraction (PAF) of CVD because of CKD and/or DM in a general population is uncertain.We followed 7229 participants (age: 30 years) with no history of CVD in a Japanese community. We divided participants into four categories according to CKD and/or DM and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) of CVD mortality for each category using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, dyslipidemia, smoking and alcohol consumption. In addition, PAFs of CVD were estimated among populations with CKD and/or DM.During 20-year follow-up, 488 participants died. HRs for CVD were 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-2.30] with DM only, 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08-1.86) with CKD only and 2.37 (95% CI: 1.40-4.01) with CKD+DM. In men, the corresponding HRs for CVD were 1.88 (95% CI: 1.19-2.97), 1.71 (95% CI: 1.15-2.56) and 3.26 (95% CI: 1.69-6.30), respectively; the corresponding PAFs of CVD were 4.1%, 5.1% and 2.9%, respectively. PAFs for CVD among women were lower than those in men, 1.6% for DM only, 2.0% for CKD only and 0.7% for CKD+DM.PAFs of CVD mortality due to CKD and/or DM were not so high in past 20 years; however, they might increase in the future because of recent increase in prevalence of these in Japanese population.


PubMed | Health Science University, Fukushima Medical University, Sapporo Medical University, Shiga University of Medical Science and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMJ open | Year: 2016

To evaluate the impact of dietary sodium and potassium (Na-K) ratio on mortality from total and subtypes of stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes, using 24-year follow-up data of a representative sample of the Japanese population.Prospective cohort study.In the 1980 National Cardiovascular Survey, participants were followed for 24years (NIPPON DATA80, National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease And its Trends in the Aged). Men and women aged 30-79years without hypertensive treatment, history of stroke or acute myocardial infarction (n=8283) were divided into quintiles according to dietary Na-K ratio assessed by a 3-day weighing dietary record at baseline. Age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted HRs were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method and Cox proportional hazards model.Mortality from total and subtypes of stroke, CVD and all causes.A total of 1938 deaths from all causes were observed over 176926 person-years. Na-K ratio was significantly and non-linearly related to mortality from all stroke (p=0.002), CVD (p=0.005) and total mortality (p=0.001). For stroke subtypes, mortality from haemorrhagic stroke was positively related to Na-K ratio (p=0.024). Similar relationships were observed for men and women. The observed relationships remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors. Quadratic non-linear multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) in the highest quintile versus the lowest quintile of Na-K ratio were 1.42 (1.07 to 1.90) for ischaemic stroke, 1.57 (1.05 to 2.34) for haemorrhagic stroke, 1.43 (1.17 to 1.76) for all stroke, 1.39 (1.20 to 1.61) for CVD and 1.16 (1.06 to 1.27) for all-cause mortality.Dietary Na-K ratio assessed by a 3-day weighing dietary record was a significant risk factor for mortality from haemorrhagic stroke, all stroke, CVD and all causes among a Japanese population.


PubMed | Health Science University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Research Institute of Strategy for Prevention and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) | Year: 2016

Although dietary soy intake is linked with health benefits, a relation with stroke has not been established. The present study examined the association between the intake of tofu, the richest source of dietary soy, with stroke mortality in a general population cohort of Japanese men and women.Data comprise 9244 Japanese enrolled in the National Nutrition Survey of Japan in 1980. Participants were free of cardiovascular disease and followed for 24 years. Dietary intake was estimated from 3-day weighed food records. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios across levels of tofu intake.During follow-up, there were 417 deaths due to stroke (88 cerebral hemorrhage [CH], 245 cerebral infarction [CI], and 84 of other subtypes). Among all men, and in women aged 65 years or more, tofu intake was unrelated to each form of stroke. For young women (<65 years of age), a significantly lower risk of CH in the top versus bottom quartile of tofu intake was observed (Multivariable-adjusted HR=0.26, 95% CI: 0.08-0.85).In this large prospective study with long follow-up of Japanese men and women, consumption of tofu was unrelated to the risk of stroke except for CH in women <65 years of age. Whether the association in younger women is real or due to chance alone warrants further study.


PubMed | Northwestern University, Sapporo Medical University, Shiga University of Medical Science, Research Institute of Strategy for Prevention and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: European journal of nutrition | Year: 2016

It is often reported that Na intake levels are higher in Japan than in western countries. Detailed analysis of food intake and its association with Na intake are necessary for supporting further decreases in Na consumption in Japan. We investigated the association between Na and food intake by food group using data from the Japanese participants of the INTERMAP Study.Results from the Japanese participants of the INTERMAP Study who did not use antihypertensive medication and/or consume a reduced Na diet were used (531 men and 518 women, aged 40-59years), obtained from four 24-h dietary recalls and two 24-h urine collections from each participant. We developed a classification system with 46 food group classifications; food consumption and Na intake from these groups were compared across quartiles of participants determined by 24-h urinary Na excretion per unit of body weight (UNa/BW).Average daily Na intake from Japanese high-Na foods was 2552mg/day. Participants with a higher UNa/BW consumed a significantly greater amount of high-Na Japanese foods, such as salted fish (P=0.001) and miso soup (P<0.001). They also had greater amount of rice (P=0.001). Participants with lower UNa/BW consumed a significantly greater amount of western foods, such as bread (P<0.001) and milk and dairy products (P<0.001).Detailed analyses of various Japanese and western food intakes in addition to Na intake were performed. These results can be used to help draw up effective programs for the reduction in Na intake and prevention of prehypertension/hypertension in the Japanese population.

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