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Dong L.,China Agricultural University | Dong L.,Research Institute of Resource Insect | Hong M.,Research Institute of Resource Insect | Li Z.-H.,Research Institute of Resource Insect | And 2 more authors.
Caryologia | Year: 2011

karyotype of five Paeonia ludlowii populations from Tibet were analyzed in this study. P. ludlowii was indicated to be a more primitive taxon. Each population possessed the same chromosome number as 2n = 10, x = 5, and the karyotypic formulae as 2n = 8m + 2st. Population JZ possessed the most asymmetrical and evolutionary karyotype based on intrachromosomal asymmetry with the highest A 1 and lowest TF; According to the interchromosomal asymmetry with the value of A 2 and DRL, population CM was most asymmetrical. Detailed karyotype analysis showed that the length of SA was the main factor to group the different populations and to investigate the relationships among them. It suggested that when in a relatively narrow area, the karyomorphological variance of P. ludlowii mainly contribute to the hereditary property.

Chen H.,Research Institute of Resource Insect | Chen H.,Yunnan University | Chen X.,Research Institute of Resource Insect | Chen X.,Key Laboratory of Cultivating and Utilization of Resources | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2013

Lac insects are commercial scale insects with high economic value. The combined molecular phylogeny of 20 lac insect populations was generated using elongation factor 1 alpha, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene loci. The 20 populations of lac insects clustered into four distinct clades supported by high bootstrap values in maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Clade A at the base of the dendrogram comprises Kerria ruralis and two populations of Kerria lacca and is the branch with most primitive species. Clade B includes K. lacca, Kerria sindica and the three populations P, V and Z from India. They clustered with high bootstrap support and have evolved later than those in Clade A. The three unidentified populations P, V and Z exhibited a close relationship with K. lacca and are the same species. In Clade C, three populations of Kerria yunnanensis (Ym, Yj and Yl), population Ys from Thailand and population H from India clustered as a group, in which population H clustered with Ym with 100 % bootstrap in all three analysis methods. In Clade D, Kerria chinensis, Kerria pusana and three populations of K. yunnanensis clustered together with strong support, and are located in the upper branches of the dendrogram and are recently evolved taxa. The majority of populations from the Indian subcontinent clade are more closely related to outgroup taxa from the primitive family Pseudococcidae, as compared to the Eurasian populations. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the Indian subcontinent is the centre of original of lac insects which have translocated to the Eurasian Continent. Based on the theory of continental drift and existing fossil records, it is suggested that lac insect evolved from ancient scale insects during the late Cretaceous period when the Indian subcontinent drifted towards the Eurasian Continent. Changes in the global environment have impacted on the distribution and evolution of lac insects during the mid-Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. With increasing temperatures lac insects are likely to translocate to subtropical areas.© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.

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