Sobiczewski P.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture RIPF |
Mikicinski A.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture RIPF |
Lewandowski M.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture RIPF |
Zurawicz E.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture RIPF |
And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011
The study was conducted at two locations (RIPF, JKI) in 2007-2010 on apple genotypes originating from Belgium, Hungary, Germany, Poland, Sweden and Switzerland. Scions were hand-grafted on 'M.9' rootstock. Each genotype was evaluated two times over two years. At RIPF, terminal shoots of potted trees of 38 genotypes were inoculated by cutting-off their tips using scissors immersed in a water suspension of Erwinia amylovora strain Ea 659 (107 cfu/ml). Observations and measurements of the progress and severity of fire blight were performed after 6 weeks. The plant germplasm Pi-AS 12,53, 'Reanda', 'Free Redstar', Pi-AS 50,74 and MR-10 appeared to be the most resistant, whereas CRA Ma B 28, CRA Ma A 70, CRA Ma A 40, CRA Ma D 30, 'Jakob Lebel', Pi-AS 26,56, CRA Ma A 68, 'Bohnapfel', 'Blauacher Wädenswil', and MR-12, were classified as very susceptible. Significant differences were found in the case of 'Enterprise' which in 2008 showed very low susceptibility but in 2009 showed low susceptibility. Similarly, clone CRA Ma A 4 in 2007 was rated as being low susceptible, but in 2009 as moderately susceptible. Further evaluation in 2010 confirmed the low susceptibility of 'Enterprise'. At JKI, actively growing shoots of potted trees of 27 genotypes placed in a greenhouse were inoculated by cutting the tips of the youngest leaves using scissors previously immersed in a suspension of a mixture of three highly virulent strains of E. amylovora (109 cfu/ml). Observations and measurements of the progress and severity of fire blight were performed 4 weeks after inoculation. MR-10, Pi-AS 36,164, Pi-AS 50,74 appeared to be the most resistant whereas 'Bohnapfel', 'Blauacher Wädenswil' and 'Idared' were classified as very susceptible in each of the two screening years. Big differences in necrosis length (>30%) between years 2008 and 2009 were found for 'Enterprise', 'Kalmare Glas', and Pi-AS 12,53. Therefore they and additionally 'Spartan' and 'Idared' were phenotyped a third year. Pi-AS 12,53 and 'Enterprise' showed very similar results to the first year of testing with 'Enterprise' and Pi-AS 12,53 being highly resistant, whereas 'Kalmare Glas' 2010 showed a value in between the values of 2008 and 2009. Summarizing, evaluation of some common genotypes at RIPF and JKI showed that in general highly resistant clones and highly susceptible clones react in the same manner independently of test site (i.e., institute) and inoculation procedure.
Weibel F.P.,Research Institute of Organic Farming FiBL |
Kruczynska D.,Research Institute of Organic Farming FiBL |
Konopacka D.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture RIPF
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012
In our study within the European ISAFRUIT project, we examined in Poland and Switzerland the acceptance of representative organic and conventional food buyers for new disease resistant apple cultivars in comparison to similar-type common cultivars (6 cultivars per country). In total 120 testers were involved. The panel tests were carried out with blinded samples in a first run, and in a second run as branded samples where information on production system (organic or integrated) and price (+26% for organic fruit) was given. With additional questionnaires we assessed the importance of the testers' general knowledge and perception on organic (fruit) production on their preference behavior. With blinded samples, in both countries both consumer groups rated the appearance and eating quality of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars relatively equal with minor advantages for the standard cultivars. However, when the samples were branded, organic buyers of both countries significantly increased their preference in appearance and on taste for the organic samples. In Poland, even the conventional buyers increased their rating for branded 'bio' samples; meanwhile the Swiss conventional buyers decreased it clearly. The analysis of the questionnaires revealed that: (i) in both countries and with both buyer groups, the awareness for the high importance of resistant cultivars for organic production is only mediocre; (ii) to increase their buying of organic apple they mainly require more basic and apple-specific information on organic production; (iii) the consumers expect from organic apples an outstanding inner quality but also a good price; (iv) the consumer's trust in the control and certification of organic production is only mediocre.