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Elahifard E.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Ghanbari A.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Mohassel M.H.R.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Zand E.,Research Institute of Plant Protection | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

Echinochloa colona (L.) Link. (junglerice) is one of the most troublesome weed species in Iranian sugarcane fields. Monoculture with repeated use of herbicides with the same mode of actions in sugarcane fields enhanced the rate of herbicide resistance. Six suspected resistant junglerice biotypes (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6) were obtained from sugarcane fields in Khuzestan province, Iran. Dose-response and gene sequencing studies were conducted to elucidate the basis for ametryn and metribuzin resistance in these biotypes. The EC50 values of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 and S biotypes were 11.95, 13.11, 7.35, 2.54, 26.57, 2.46 and 0.034 and 11.61, 27.72, 27.13, 5.54, 66.65, 1.12 and 0.11 mg ai L-1 of ametryn and metribuzin in pregerminated seed assay, respectively. The ED50 values of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 and S biotypes were 6212, 3046, 4396, 1709.2, 9427, 491.58 and 106.53 and 1667.2, 1195, 830.18, 672.43, 4458.7, 140.55 and 54.68 g ai ha-1 of ametryn and metribuzin in the whole plant assay, respectively. Resistance factor (Rf50) of the R-biotypes varied from 72.35 to 781.47 and 10.18 to 605.09 in seedling assays and from 4.62 to 88.64 and 2.57 to 81.54 in the whole plant assay of ametryn and metribuzin, respectively. DNA sequence analysis of the psbA gene, which is the target site of PS II inhibiting herbicides, revealed that two nucleotide changes (A to G) at position 232 and 286 conferred two amino acid substitutions from serine to glycine at residue 264 in the R-biotypes (except R4) and glycine to serine at residue 282 in the S- biotype. Source

Khoobdel M.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University | Ma'rouf A.,Research Institute of Plant Protection | Farajzadeh D.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University | Vatani H.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Military Medicine | Year: 2011

Aims: Military Forces have to store primary food ingredients in order to have food security and provide foods for their personnel. Therefore detection of potential pests in warehouses can be very important in their control and maintenance of food. The aim of this study was to determine the abundance and diversity of pests and also the rate of cereal contamination in the warehouses of military units. Methods: This cross- sectional study was done during 2007-9 in 9 unite of military grain storages. Sampling of cereals was performed according to the method of Standards Institute and Industrial Research of Iran. Separation of arthropods from cereals and beans was performed by direct observation, using the stereomicroscope, Berlese funnel, flotation, vapor exposure and etc. Data was analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical methods by SPSS 12 software. Results: Four species of pests including Oryzaephilus mercator, Tribolium castaneum, Bruchus lentis and Bruchus rufimanus were determined and respectively separated from rice, barely, lentil and broad bean. The warehouse 1 and 3 were the most contaminated places, respectively with mean 1.3±0.65 and 1.4±0.6 of grain per 100g. Barley with about 3.2±1.1 per 100g was more contaminated than other products. Conclusion: Contamination of cereals in the studied warehouses is often less than standard and in only two cases of barely stocks is more than limited. Source

Asef M.R.,Research Institute of Plant Protection
Mycology | Year: 2012

Mating compatibility studies using Iranian collections of Pleurotus ostreatus complex revealed three intersterility species in Iran. Haploid and dikaryon isolates of Iranian intersterility groups were paired with tester strains and the results showed that intersterility groups of Iranian P. ostreatus complex are compatible with P. cornucopiae, P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius. Morphological characteristics were not useful to distinguish Iranian collections of P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius. The compatibility of different strains, produced as "P. sajor-caju" in mushroom farms, with P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius showed confusion in the identity of "P. sajor-caju" commercial strains in Iran. Results also showed compatibility between commercial strains of the ambiguous species, P. florida, collected from mushroom farms with P. ostreatus testers. © 2012 Copyright 2012 Mycological Society of China. Source

Asef M.R.,Research Institute of Plant Protection | Muradov P.,Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences
Turkish Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

In this research, lepiotaceous fungi belonging to the family Agaricaceae were collected and identified from the Iranian part of Caucasia. As a result of these investigations, 14 species belonging to 6 genera (Chlorophyllum Massee, Cystolepiota Singer, Lepiota (Pers.) Gray, Leucoagaricus Locq. ex Singer, Leucocoprinus Pat., and Macrolepiota Singer) were identified. Of the species identified, Chlorophyllum molybdites (G.Mey.) Massee, Cystolepiota seminuda (Lasch) Bon, Lepiota clypeolarioides Rea, Lepiota felina (Pers.) P.Karst., and Leucocoprinus ianthinus (Cooke) P.Mohr are new for Iranian fungus biota. © TÜBITAK. Source

Dubovskiy I.M.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Slyamova N.D.,Research Institute of Plant Protection | Kryukov V.Y.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Yaroslavtseva O.N.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Entomological Review | Year: 2012

The activity of nonspecific esterases and glutathione-S-transferase in whole body homogenates, hemolymph plasma, and fat body of the larvae of the locust Locusta migratoria was analyzed during development of infection with the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. The lethal dose of the fungus (LC 80) was found to enhance the activity of detoxifying enzymes in the whole body homogenate of the larvae on the 3rd day after infection. The activity of nonspecific esterases and glutathione-S-transferase in the plasma and fat body of the infected larvae increased on the 3rd day but dropped to the control levels by the 6th day, during the acute period of infection. The detoxifying enzymes may participate in defense reactions at the early stage of the acute fungal infection. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

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