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Veronika M.,Constantine the Philosopher University | Daniel M.,Research Institute of Plant Production | Kraic J.,University of Trnava
Agriculture | Year: 2015

Repetitive tandem sequences were retrieved within nucleotide sequences of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) genomic DNA available in the GenBank® database. Altogether 538 different microsatellites with the desired length characteristics of tandem repeats have been identified within 450 sequences of opium poppy DNA available in the database. The most frequented were mononucleotide repeats (246); nevertheless, 44 dinucleotide, 148 trinucleotide, 62 tetranucleotide, 28 pentanucleotide and 5 hexanucleotide tandem repeats have also been found. The most abundant were trinucleotide motifs (27.50%), and the most abundant motifs within each group of tandem repeats were TA/AT, TTC/GAA, GGTT/AACC and TTTTA/TAAAA. Five hexanucleotide repeats contained four different motifs.

Faragova N.,Research Institute of Plant Production | Gottwaldova K.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Farago J.,University of Trnava
Biologia | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants, in comparison to their non-transgenic counterpart, on the density and physiological profiles of aerobic bacteria in the rhizosphere. Plants of transgenic alfalfa expressing the AMVcp-s gene coding for Alfalfa Mosaic Virus coat protein were cultivated in a climatic chamber. Two methods were used to determine the microbial diversity in rhizospheres of transgenic plants. First, the cultivation-dependent plating method, based on the determination of the density of colony-forming bacteria, and second, a biochemical method using the Biolog™ system, based on the utilization of different carbon sources by soil microorganisms. Statistically significant differences in densities of rhizospheric bacteria between transgenic and non-transgenic alfalfa clones were observed in ammonifying bacteria (GTL4/404-1), cellulolytic bacteria (GTL4/404-1, GTL4/402-2, A5-3-3), rhizobial bacteria (GTL4/402-2), denitrifying bacteria (A5-3-3) and Azotobacter spp. (GTL4/402-2). The highest values of substrate utilization by microbial communities and average respiration of C-sources were determined in non-transgenic alfalfa plants of the isogenic line SE/22-GT2. Carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and amino-acids were the most utilized carbon substrates by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Both, the community metabolic diversity and the utilization of C-sources increased in all alfalfa lines with culture time and regardless of transgenic or non-transgenic nature of lines. © 2011 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

Benedikova D.,Research Institute of Plant Production
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

The low adaptability of the apricot species appeal to breeding programme for creating cultivars that are adapted to the specific conditions of the Slovak production area. The breeding programme of apricot genetic improvement began in 1964 at the RIPP Piestany and has continued since 1978 at the Research Breeding Station Vesele. This programme has been carried out to pursue several objectives: the most important were resistance to frost, fruit quality and resistance to diseases (PPV, Monilinia spp., Gnomonia). Up to now 10 apricot cultivars and 2 rootstocks have been registered. The most promising are 'Veharda' and 'Vemina' with resistance to PPV, 'Veharda' and 'Vegama' with frost resistance, 'Vesna' with tolerance to Gnomonia erythrostoma, 'Veselka' with attractive appearance, 'Vesprima' and 'Vemina' with firm flesh, etc. The best cultivars originated from parental combination between European x middle Asia genotypes and European x Chinese genotypes. Historical breeding efforts have been described as well as the basic taxonomy and ecogeographical groups that are currently accepted for apricot. The collections of apricot genetic resources are placed in the two localities and contain 314 genotypes originated from all eco-geographic groups. The trees are evaluated for phenotypic-agronomic characters, on one hand, and are going to be evaluated for the molecular markers on the other hand. All data are included into the databases of the National Program for Conservation PGR in Slovakia. This current work provides readers with an up-todate summary of apricot breeding efforts, new apricot cultivars and the utilization of molecular techniques that are employed to assist the breeding effort.

Cvikrova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Gemperlova L.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Dobra J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Martincova O.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 3 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2012

The effect of heat stress on the accumulation of proline and on the level of polyamines (PAs) in tobacco plants was investigated. Responses to heat stress were compared in the upper and lower leaves and roots of tobacco plants that constitutively over-express a modified gene for the proline biosynthetic enzyme Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CSF129A) and in the corresponding wild-type. In the initial phases of heat stress (after 2. h at 40°C), the accumulation of proline increased in the wild type but slightly decreased in the transformants. The response to heat stress in proline-over-producing tobacco plants involved a transient increase in the levels of free and conjugated putrescine (Put) and in the levels of free spermidine (Spd), norspermidine (N-Spd) and spermine (Spm) after a 2-h lag phase, which correlated with stimulation of the activity of the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes. Diamine oxidase (DAO) activity increased in both plant genotypes, most significantly in the leaves of WT plants. Polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity increased in the roots of WT plants and decreased in the leaves and roots of the transformants. After 6. h of heat stress, proline accumulation was observed in the transformants, especially in the lower leaves; much more modest increase was observed in the WT plants. A decrease in the levels of free and conjugated Put coincided with down-regulation of the activity of ornithine decarboxylase and marked stimulation of DAO activity in the leaves and roots of the transformants. PAO activity increased in the roots of the transformants but decreased in the leaves. Conversely, in WT tobacco subjected to 6. h of heat stress, slight increases in free and conjugated PA levels were observed and the activity of DAO only increased in the roots; PAO activity did not change from the value observed during the initial phase of heat stress. 6. Hours' heat stress had no effect on the level of malondialdehyde (MDA; a product of lipid peroxidation), in the upper leaves of either genotype. After a recovery period (2. h at 25°C), most of the studied parameters exhibited values comparable to those observed in untreated plants. The coordination of the proline and polyamine biosynthetic pathways during heat stress conditions is discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Ondreickova K.,Research Institute of Plant Production | Kraic J.,University of Trnava
Agriculture | Year: 2015

Field trials with the genetic modified (GM) maize stacked hybrid NK603 × MON810 performed in two different locations in the Czech Republic were used for evaluation of genetic diversity of rhizosphere bacterial communities using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Statistically significant differences in the number of terminal restriction fragments (i.e. bacterial richness) between GM and non-GM maize were not detected. Diversity indices (Gini-Simpson and Shannon's) revealed higher bacterial diversity in non-GM sample from location Ivanovice na Hané and in the GM maize from location Probluz, but statistical significant differences between GM and non-GM samples were not detected. Additionally, using principal component analysis and cluster analysis, no substantial variation in the composition of bacterial communities between GM and conventional maize were observed but the differences among individual collection sites were recorded.

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