Cvikrova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
Gemperlova L.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
Dobra J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
Martincova O.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
And 3 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2012
The effect of heat stress on the accumulation of proline and on the level of polyamines (PAs) in tobacco plants was investigated. Responses to heat stress were compared in the upper and lower leaves and roots of tobacco plants that constitutively over-express a modified gene for the proline biosynthetic enzyme Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CSF129A) and in the corresponding wild-type. In the initial phases of heat stress (after 2. h at 40°C), the accumulation of proline increased in the wild type but slightly decreased in the transformants. The response to heat stress in proline-over-producing tobacco plants involved a transient increase in the levels of free and conjugated putrescine (Put) and in the levels of free spermidine (Spd), norspermidine (N-Spd) and spermine (Spm) after a 2-h lag phase, which correlated with stimulation of the activity of the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes. Diamine oxidase (DAO) activity increased in both plant genotypes, most significantly in the leaves of WT plants. Polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity increased in the roots of WT plants and decreased in the leaves and roots of the transformants. After 6. h of heat stress, proline accumulation was observed in the transformants, especially in the lower leaves; much more modest increase was observed in the WT plants. A decrease in the levels of free and conjugated Put coincided with down-regulation of the activity of ornithine decarboxylase and marked stimulation of DAO activity in the leaves and roots of the transformants. PAO activity increased in the roots of the transformants but decreased in the leaves. Conversely, in WT tobacco subjected to 6. h of heat stress, slight increases in free and conjugated PA levels were observed and the activity of DAO only increased in the roots; PAO activity did not change from the value observed during the initial phase of heat stress. 6. Hours' heat stress had no effect on the level of malondialdehyde (MDA; a product of lipid peroxidation), in the upper leaves of either genotype. After a recovery period (2. h at 25°C), most of the studied parameters exhibited values comparable to those observed in untreated plants. The coordination of the proline and polyamine biosynthetic pathways during heat stress conditions is discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Sip V.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute |
Chrpova J.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute |
Zofajova A.,Research Institute of Plant Production |
Pankova K.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2010
Based on studies of the distribution of alleles at the important Rht and Ppd loci on wheat chromosomes 4B, 4D and 2D, different groups of winter wheat cultivars registered in the Czech and Slovak Republics during the period 1976-2007 were examined for a range of agronomic traits using official data from multi-location trials. Significant variation for all traits was detected among and between genotype groups. The frequent introduction of 'Rht-D1b' cultivars from the UK and Western Europe to the Czech Republic since 1995 has positively influenced lodging resistance and undoubtedly also yielding ability, but negatively affected winter-hardiness and bread making quality. An improved opportunity for earlier flowering cultivars with high winter-hardiness levels, in combination with high bread-making quality, can be obtained with genotypes carrying the Xgwm261 allele 192-bp that is probably indicative of the presence of Rht8. While GA insensitive Rht genes caused approximately a 10 cm reduction of plant height, the 192-bp allele at Xgwm261 was not associated, in these conditions, with a significant reduction in plant height when compared to Xgwm261 alleles 165- and 174-bp. Likewise, the photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a did not have a significant effect on plant height and it had not adversely affected other characters. Later heading genotypes carrying Xgwm261 alleles174- and 165-bp, often in combination with Ppd-D1b, could probably guarantee broader adaptability, which is highly desirable for changeable weather conditions. While the presence of the 192-bp allele was clearly associated with suitability for cultivation in the warmer maize growing regions, this was not so obvious for Ppd-D1a, particularly when combined with the 174-bp allele. GA responsive genes did not, apparently, influence adaptability to the different growing conditions. These studies reveal that there were both shortcomings and benefits attributable to the use of germplasm from different origins when introducing Rht and Ppd alleles. These results should be helpful to breeders in optimizing the choice of parents for crossing, and selection strategy in these target environments. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.
Ondreickova K.,Research Institute of Plant Production |
Kraic J.,University of Trnava
Agriculture | Year: 2015
Field trials with the genetic modified (GM) maize stacked hybrid NK603 × MON810 performed in two different locations in the Czech Republic were used for evaluation of genetic diversity of rhizosphere bacterial communities using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Statistically significant differences in the number of terminal restriction fragments (i.e. bacterial richness) between GM and non-GM maize were not detected. Diversity indices (Gini-Simpson and Shannon's) revealed higher bacterial diversity in non-GM sample from location Ivanovice na Hané and in the GM maize from location Probluz, but statistical significant differences between GM and non-GM samples were not detected. Additionally, using principal component analysis and cluster analysis, no substantial variation in the composition of bacterial communities between GM and conventional maize were observed but the differences among individual collection sites were recorded.
Havrlentova M.,Research Institute of Plant Production |
Petrulakova Z.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava |
Burgarova A.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava |
Gago F.,University of Trnava |
And 4 more authors.
Czech Journal of Food Sciences | Year: 2011
Cereals are generally known to have a positive influence on the general state of the human organism. The attention of the nutritional experts is paid especially to oats and barley. Besides their accessibility, these cereals are interesting due to their relatively high contents of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (fibrous material), out of which β-glucans have a dominant position from the aspect of health benefit. This paper presents a brief review of the latest knowledge on the positive effects of β-glucans on the consumer's health. The structure, occurrence, sources, and positive physiological effects of β-glucans on the cardiovascular system but also their antibacterial, antitumoral, immunomodulant, and radioprotective properties are mentioned. In the paper are given examples of β-glucans exploitation as functional ingredients in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries and as food additives on the basis of cereal fibres and cereal β-glucans.
Faragova N.,Research Institute of Plant Production |
Gottwaldova K.,Slovak University of Agriculture |
Farago J.,University of Trnava
Biologia | Year: 2011
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants, in comparison to their non-transgenic counterpart, on the density and physiological profiles of aerobic bacteria in the rhizosphere. Plants of transgenic alfalfa expressing the AMVcp-s gene coding for Alfalfa Mosaic Virus coat protein were cultivated in a climatic chamber. Two methods were used to determine the microbial diversity in rhizospheres of transgenic plants. First, the cultivation-dependent plating method, based on the determination of the density of colony-forming bacteria, and second, a biochemical method using the Biolog™ system, based on the utilization of different carbon sources by soil microorganisms. Statistically significant differences in densities of rhizospheric bacteria between transgenic and non-transgenic alfalfa clones were observed in ammonifying bacteria (GTL4/404-1), cellulolytic bacteria (GTL4/404-1, GTL4/402-2, A5-3-3), rhizobial bacteria (GTL4/402-2), denitrifying bacteria (A5-3-3) and Azotobacter spp. (GTL4/402-2). The highest values of substrate utilization by microbial communities and average respiration of C-sources were determined in non-transgenic alfalfa plants of the isogenic line SE/22-GT2. Carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and amino-acids were the most utilized carbon substrates by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Both, the community metabolic diversity and the utilization of C-sources increased in all alfalfa lines with culture time and regardless of transgenic or non-transgenic nature of lines. © 2011 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.
PubMed | Research Institute of Plant Production and University of Trnava
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chemistry & biodiversity | Year: 2015
The content of biogenic compounds and the biological activities of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-grain extracts was evaluated. The sufficiently large and heterogeneous set of barley genotypes (100 accessions) enabled the selection of special genotypes interesting for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medicinal applications. Barley genotypes with the highest contents of phenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, biogenic thiols, and amines, radical-scavenging activity, as well as inhibitory activities of trypsin, thrombin, collagenase, urokinase, and cyclooxygenase were identified.
Bolvansky M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences |
Uzik M.,Research Institute of Plant Production
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
Twelve morphological characteristics of chestnut fruits were evaluated, during consecutive years (2007-2011) from eight seedlings and ten grafts of different parentages. Evaluations were made on 10-14 year-old seedlings and grafts grown in a chestnut orchard in Príbelce. Seedlings were derived from open pollination of four interspecific hybrids (Castanea. sativa C. crenata), one intraspecific cross (C. sativa C. sativa) and one C. crenata tree. Grafts were derived from four interspecific hybrids (C. sativa C. crenata) and three intraspecific crosses (C. sativa C. sativa). All fruit characteristics (weight, height, width, shape index, thickness, length and width of fruit scar, number of seeds per bur and number of pellicle intrusions) except for fruit shape significantly varied among years. Year x tree interaction was a significant factor in the amount of variation for all the traits analysed, except for the number of nuts/bur. In general, there is a differential effect of both air temperature and the amount of rainfall during the period June-Sept. on fruit weight. In trees with larger fruit, fruit weight was positively correlated with mean air temperature and negatively correlated with the amount of rainfall during the period of fruit development. In trees with smaller fruit, there was a negative correlation between fruit weight and the aforementioned climatic characteristics.
Gubisova M.,Research Institute of Plant Production |
Gubis J.,Research Institute of Plant Production |
Zofajova A.,Research Institute of Plant Production
Agriculture | Year: 2016
The effect of plant propagation method on growth parameters and the yield of above-ground biomass in two species of gigantic grasses were measured during three growing seasons. Plants were multiplied in explant culture and through traditional methods - by rhizome segments (Miscanthus × giganteus) or by stem cuttings (Arundo donax). In the case of M. × giganteus, in vitro-multiplied plants produced more shoots with significantly lower diameter, but the differences in the number of shoots, plant height and the yield of dry biomass were not statistically significant. Different results were observed for A. donax, where in vitro-multiplied plants showed significantly weaker results in all parameters, with the exception of the number of shoots in the first measured season. In both the species, there was observed the strong effect of the year. While in M. × giganteus the yield of dry biomass gradually decreased during the measured years, it increased in the case of giant reed. © 2016 Marcela Gubišová et al., published by De Gruyter Open 2016.
Benedikova D.,Research Institute of Plant Production
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010
The low adaptability of the apricot species appeal to breeding programme for creating cultivars that are adapted to the specific conditions of the Slovak production area. The breeding programme of apricot genetic improvement began in 1964 at the RIPP Piestany and has continued since 1978 at the Research Breeding Station Vesele. This programme has been carried out to pursue several objectives: the most important were resistance to frost, fruit quality and resistance to diseases (PPV, Monilinia spp., Gnomonia). Up to now 10 apricot cultivars and 2 rootstocks have been registered. The most promising are 'Veharda' and 'Vemina' with resistance to PPV, 'Veharda' and 'Vegama' with frost resistance, 'Vesna' with tolerance to Gnomonia erythrostoma, 'Veselka' with attractive appearance, 'Vesprima' and 'Vemina' with firm flesh, etc. The best cultivars originated from parental combination between European x middle Asia genotypes and European x Chinese genotypes. Historical breeding efforts have been described as well as the basic taxonomy and ecogeographical groups that are currently accepted for apricot. The collections of apricot genetic resources are placed in the two localities and contain 314 genotypes originated from all eco-geographic groups. The trees are evaluated for phenotypic-agronomic characters, on one hand, and are going to be evaluated for the molecular markers on the other hand. All data are included into the databases of the National Program for Conservation PGR in Slovakia. This current work provides readers with an up-todate summary of apricot breeding efforts, new apricot cultivars and the utilization of molecular techniques that are employed to assist the breeding effort.
Babulicova M.,Research Institute of Plant Production |
Gavurnikova S.,Research Institute of Plant Production
Agriculture | Year: 2015
The aim of our study is to find out the influence of different share of cereals and various fertilisation on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The long-term field trial with 40, 60 and 80% share of the cereals and two levels of fertilisation (H1 mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget®; H2 mineral fertilisation only) were carried out in the very warm and dry area of continental weather on luvi-haplic chernozem. In the years 2010-2013, the grain yield, the wet gluten content, gluten index, the falling number and sedimentation index of winter wheat according to Zeleny were investigated. The significantly higher grain yield of winter wheat was recorded after preceding crop of common pea. The yield of cereals in crop rotation with 60% share of cereals (7.00 t/ha) was significantly higher than in crop rotation with 80% share of cereals (6.78 t/ha).The statistically higher wet gluten content after pea fore-crop was found out when the mineral fertilisation and organic fertiliser Veget® were applied (33.4%) with comparison to the treatment with mineral fertilisation only (30.08%). © Mária Babulicová et al. 2015.