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Pupyshev A.B.,Novosibirsk State Medical University | Korolenko T.A.,Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine | Tikhonova M.A.,Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine
Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatelnosti Imeni I.P. Pavlova | Year: 2016

The role of autophagy in cell survival and suppression of neurodegeneration was considered. We discussed its involvement in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases connected with accumulation of amy-loid-β, α-synuclein, and huntingtin, respectively. Autophagy is reduced in these diseases and in aging as well to various extent. Elimination of accumulated toxic proteins and structures is performed by autophagy mechanisms (chaperon-mediated autophagy, macroautophagy, selected autophagy) in an interaction with ubiquitin-proteasome system. In many cases activation of mTOR-dependent autophagy and mTOR-independent regulatory pathways lead to the therapeutic effect of inhibition of neurodegeneration in cell cultures and animal models. Some autophagy enhancers such as resveratrol, metformin, rilmenidine, lithium, and curcumin are tested now in clinical trials.


Kozyreva T.V.,Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine | Meyta E.S.,Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine | Kozaruk V.P.,Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2017

We studied the role of purinergic P2X receptors in the body response to cooling. In experiments on rats, P2X receptor antagonist PPADS was administered in different modes, which resulted in changes of different characteristics of the thermoregulatory response to cold. Iontophoresis of P2X antagonist into the skin decreased the thermal thresholds of all thermoregulatory responses to cooling, which can attest to a modulating effect of P2X receptors on peripheral thermosensitive afferents. Intraperitoneal administration of P2X antagonist suppressed thermoregulatory activity of skeletal muscles (shivering) developing during cooling without changing the thresholds of thermoregulatory responses. The findings suggest that ATP and P2X receptors play an important role in the formation of the response to cooling. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


PubMed | Tsivyan Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics and Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova | Year: 2015

To compare parameters of attention in healthy people and patients with neoplasms in different regions of the cerebral cortex and to evaluate quality of life (QoL) indices with regard to impairment of different attention systems.Twenty patients with oncological lesions of the brain (mean age 56.58.8 years) who did not undergo surgery were studied. Tumor localization was confirmed using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, the tumor type was histologically verified. A control group included 18 healthy people matched for age, sex and education level. To determine attention system functions, we developed a computed version of the Attention Network Test. Error rate and reaction time for correct responses to the target stimulus, displayed along with neutral, congruent and incongruent signals, were the indicators of the efficacy of selective processes. QoL indices were assessed using SF-36 health survey questionnaire.The readiness to respond to incoming stimuli was mostly impaired in patients with brain tumors. Efficacy of executive attention, assessed as the increase in the number of errors in selection of visual stimuli, was decreased while temporary parameters of the functions of this system were not changed in patients compared to controls. The SF-36 total score was stable in patients with marked reduction in scores on the Role and Emotional Functioning scales. The most severe health impairment measured on the SF-36 scales of role/social emotional functioning and viability was recorded in patients with the lesions of frontal cortical areas compared to temporal/parietal areas. The relationship between SF-36 Health self-rating and attention systems was found. This finding puts the question of the importance of attention characteristics and QoL for survival prognosis of patients with brain tumors.


PubMed | Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Lymphology and Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine | Year: 2016

We studied the effect of a biomedical cell product (bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and products secreted by these cells in conditioned medium) on subpopulation composition of lymphoid cells of central and peripheral lymphoid organs of Wistar rats under normal conditions. Changes in the subpopulation composition of lymphoid organs depended on the route of administration of biomedical cell product.


PubMed | Institute of Fundamental and Clinical Immunology, Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Lymphology and Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine | Year: 2016

The effects of anti-CD208 antibodies (mannose receptor) on functional characteristics of peritoneal macrophages were studied in intact mice and mice with lipidemia induced by poloxamer-407. Lipidemia was associated with suppression of phagocytosis and increase in spontaneous proliferative potential and NO production by macrophages. Anti-CD206 antibodies suppressed NO production by macrophages in mice with lipidemia.


PubMed | Institute of Molecular Pathology and Pathomorphology, RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics and Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine | Year: 2015

Ratio between proMMP and active MMP was studied in the dynamics of growth of the Lewis lung adenocarcinoma with lung metastasis. It was shown that tumor growth is associated with an increase in the content of proMMP (day 20; terminal stage), but the level of active MMP in tumor tissue did not signifi cantly change. The development of lung metastasis was accompanied by accumulation of active MMP (days 7, 15, and 20) and a decrease in the content of pro-MMP (days 7, and 20) in comparison with the control. In the spleen of these mice (metastasis-free organ), an increase in the levels of proMMP (day 20) and especially active MMP (days 7, 15, and 20) were found. The results suggest that tumor development shifts the proportion between active MMP and proenzymes in the tumor, lungs with metastasis, and spleen without metastasis.


PubMed | RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Research Institute of Therapy and Preventive Medicine and Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine | Year: 2016

Predisposition to antisocial behavior can be related to the presence of certain polymorphic variants of genes encoding dopaminergic system proteins. We studied the frequencies of allele variants and genotypes of variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in 3 untranslated region (3 VTNR) of the dopaminergic transporter SLC6A3 gene in Caucasian men committed socially dangerous violent and non-violent crimes. Alleles with 9 and 10 repeats were most frequent in both the control group and group of men predisposed to antisocial behavior. At the same time, the 10/10 genotype was more frequently observed in the group of men prone to antisocial non-violent behavior. Hence, the presence of certain variants of 3 VTNR polymorphism of SLC6A3 gene in men is associated with predisposition to certain forms of antisocial behavior.


PubMed | University Canada West, Slovak Academy of Sciences and Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine | Year: 2016

We studied biological effects of mannan, a polysaccharide immunomodulator from C. albicans, that interacts with mannose receptor in vivo. It is shown that preliminary administration of mannan (5 times in a dose of 50 mg/kg or 2 times in a dose of 100 mg/kg) to mice with acute lipemia induced by lipase inhibitor poloxamer 407 (300 mg/kg) reduces the serum concentrations of atherogenic LDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Administration of mannan to intact mice and animals with acute lipemia reduces triglyceride concentration and causes labilization of lysosomal membranes in the liver. Serum activity of chitotriosidase, a marker of macrophage activation, was elevated in mice with acute lipemia treated with mannan. Thus, mannan from C. albicans is a promising hypolipidemic polysaccharide compound, similar by its activity to -glycan, a component of LPS.


PubMed | Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine | Year: 2015

We studied the response of the pineal gland and organs of the immune system to melatonin treatment in Wistar rats kept under conditions of abnormal illumination regimen. The animals were kept under natural light regimen or continuous illumination for 14 days and then received daily injections of melatonin (once a day in the evening) for 7 days. Administration of melatonin to rats kept at natural light cycle was followed by a decrease in percent ratio of CD4+8+ splenocytes and CD4-8+ thymocytes. In 24-h light with the following melatonin injections were accompanied by an increase in percent rate and absolute amount of CD4+8+ cells in the spleen, and a decrease in percent rate of CD11b/c and CD4-8+ splenocytes. In the thymus amount of CD4-8+ cells increased, and absolute number of CD4+25+ cells reduced. Melatonin significantly decreased lipofuscin concentration in the pineal gland during continuous light. Direction and intensity of effects of melatonin on parameters of cell immunity and state of the pineal gland were different under normal and continuous light conditions. It should be taken into account during using of this hormone for correction of immune and endocrine impairments developing during change in light/dark rhythm.


PubMed | Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine | Year: 2015

We compared the effectiveness of immunomodulators used in the treatment of patients with chronic salpingitis and oophoritis with or without changes in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in blood lymphocytes at incubation with the drug. Diurnal variations in individual reaction of SDH in blood lymphocytes to thymalin or ridostin were revealed. In the groups of women receiving ridostin or thymalin during the reaction of lymphocyte SDH to it, improvement of clinical laboratory and immunological parameters was observed in the majority of the patients and no effect was found in a lesser group of patients than in the groups treated with drugs during the absence of lymphocyte SDH reaction thereto. The timing of the presence of SDH reaction to drugs in the immunocompetent cells makes it possible to set the optimal daily regime of their application and to select a drug that would be most effective in each particular case.

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