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Kim M.J.,Hallym University | Jeong H.J.,Hallym University | Kim D.W.,Research Institute of Oral Science | Sohn E.J.,Hallym University | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme which plays a central role in various diseases. However, the mechanism and function of PON1 protein in inflammation are poorly understood. Since PON1 protein alone cannot be delivered into cells, we generated a cell permeable PEP-1-PON1 protein using protein transduction domains, and examined whether it can protect against cell death in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O 2)-treated Raw 264.7 cells as well as mice with 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation. We demonstrated that PEP-1-PON1 protein transduced into Raw 264.7 cells and markedly protected against LPS or H2O2-induced cell death by inhibiting cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the inflammatory mediator's expression, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cellular apoptosis. Furthermore, topically applied PEP-1-PON1 protein ameliorates TPA-treated mice skin inflammation via a reduction of inflammatory response. Our results indicate that PEP-1-PON1 protein plays a key role in inflammation and oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we suggest that PEP-1-PON1 protein may provide a potential protein therapy against oxidative stress and inflammation. © 2014 Kim et al. Source


Lee J.-C.,Kangwon National University | Chen B.H.,Institute of Neurodegeneration and Neuroregeneration | Cho J.-H.,Kangwon National University | Kim I.H.,Kangwon National University | And 11 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2015

Inhibitors of DNA-binding/differentiation (ID) proteins bind to basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, including those that regulate differentiation and cell-cycle progression during development, and regulate gene transcription. However, little is known about the role of ID proteins in the brain under transient cerebral ischemic conditions. In the present study, we examined the effects of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury on the immunoreactivity and protein levels of IDs 1-4 in the gerbil hippocampus proper Cornu Ammonis regions CA1-3 following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Strong ID1 immunoreactivity was detected in the nuclei of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1-3 regions; immunoreactivity was significantly changed following I-R in the CA1 region, but not in the CA2/3 region. Five days following I-R, ID1 immunoreactivity was not detected in the CA1 pyramidal neurons. ID1 immunoreactivity was detected only in GABAergic interneurons in the ischemic CA1 region. Weak ID4 immunoreactivity was detected in non-pyramidal cells, and immunoreactivity was again only changed in the ischemic CA1 region. Five days following I-R, strong ID4 immunoreactivity was detected in non-pyramidal cells, which were identified as microglia, and not astrocytes, in the ischemic CA1 region. Furthermore, changes in the protein levels of ID1 and ID4 in the ischemic CA1 region studied by western blot were consistent with patterns of immunoreactivity. In summary, these results indicate that immunoreactivity and protein levels of ID1 and ID4 are distinctively altered following transient cerebral ischemia only in the CA1 region, and that the changes in ID1 and ID4 expression may relate to the ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death. Source


Kato R.,Nihon University | Takahashi K.,Nihon University | Takahashi K.,Research Institute of Oral Science
Journal of Hard Tissue Biology | Year: 2016

Semaphorin (Sema) 7A, also known as CDw108, is the only glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked member of the semaphorin family. It was recently suggested that Sema 7A regulates osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, and is important for bone homeostasis. The dental follicle is an ectomesenchymal tissue that surrounds developing tooth germ, which contains osteoblastic/cementoblastic lineage committed stem/progenitor cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression of Sema 7A and its receptors, plexinC1 and β-integrin, in human dental follicle cells (hDFCs) during osteogenic differentiation. We analyzed gene expression profiles between hDFCs cultures with GM and OIM on day 17. Sema 7A was the most up-regulated among the semaphorin family members in OIM culture when compared to GM culture. We confirmed the gene expression of Sema 7A in three hDFCs samples isolated from three donors using real-time PCR. Sema 7A was up-regulated in OIM culture in three hDFC samples. In addition, Sema 7A mRNA showed high levels on days 0 and 17 in hDFCs cultured in OIM, as compared to days 3 and 10, exhibiting bimodal expression during osteoblast differentiation. The expression of plexin C1 and β-integrin was also up-regulated in OIM culture when compared to GM culture. These findings suggest that Sema 7A and its receptors are associated with the osteogenic differentiation of hDFCs. © 2016 The Hard Tissue Biology Network Association Printed in Japan, All rights reserved. Source


Kim Y.-H.,Research Institute of Oral Science | Kim J.H.,Gangneung - Wonju National University | Jin H.-J.,Gangneung - Wonju National University | Lee S.Y.,Research Institute of Oral Science
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2014

Xanthium strumarium L. is an annual or a short-lived perennial that is readily found in the fields. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of X. strumarium on oral microbial species was examined for possible usage of extracts of X. strumarium in dental care products. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by a microdilution method in culture medium. The MICs for oral streptococci were between 125 and 500 μg/ml. The MBCs for streptococci were between 250 and 2,000 μg/ml. Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces odontolyticus and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans showed similar MICs and MBCs as oral streptococcal strains. The MICs were 62.5 and 15.6 μg/ml for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis, respectively. In the experiment for examining the effect of concentration of extracts and incubation time on the killing of bacteria, the killing of Streptococcus mutans was dependent on concentration of extracts and incubation time. The treatment of bacteria with extracts changed the cell surface texture of S. mutans and P. gingivalis. The surface of bacteria treated with extracts was rougher than untreated bacteria and small bumps appeared on the surface of both bacteria after treatment with extract. Based on the results of this study, extracts of X. strumarium would be a useful material for the development of antimicrobial agents against oral pathogens. Source


Kim Y.-H.,Research Institute of Oral Science | Kim J.H.,Gangneung - Wonju National University | Jin H.-J.,Gangneung - Wonju National University | Lee S.Y.,Research Institute of Oral Science
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

Rosmarinus officinalis is an edible evergreen shrub with fragrance native to the Mediterranean area. It is widely used for culinary and medicinal purpose around the world. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of R.officinalis on broad range of oral microbial species including streptococci, actinomyces, lactobacillus, candida and periodonto-pathogenic bacterial species was studied for possible usage of extracts of R. officinalism dental care products for example mouth wash solutions and tooth pastes. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by a microdilution method in culture medium. The MICs of ethanol extracts of R, officinalis for oral streptococci were between 31.25 and 250 μg/ml and MBCs were between 31.25 and 500 μg/ml. Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces odontolyticus showed MICs of 31.25 and 15.62 μg/ml, respectively, and MBC of 62.5 μg/ml. The MICs were 15.62 and 7.81 μg/ml for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis, respectively. The bactericidal activities of extracts of R. officinalis against susceptible bacterial species were dependent on concentration of extracts and incubation time. The treatment of bacteria with extract changed the cell surface texture of Streptococcus mutons and P. gingivalis. The data of our present study suggested that extracts of R. officinalis would be a useful compound for the development of antimicrobial agents against oral pathogens. Source

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