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Kamenova I.,Agrobioinstitute Dragan Tzankov Blvd. | Milusheva S.,Bulgarian Fruit Growing Institute | Dragoyski K.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Borissova A.,Institute of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Since first being recorded in Bulgaria in 1917-1918 and described as a viral disease in 1932 (Atanasoff, 1932/1933) sharka (Plum pox) disease has progressively spread via infected plant material to be present nowadays all over the country. This overview is an attempt to synthesize almost 80 years of sharka disease investigations in Bulgaria in several aspects as: economical importance, hosts, diagnosis, identification and strain characterization of the pathogen, aphid vectors and the control measures applied. Overall, the history of PPV control in Bulgaria is one of unsuccessful eradication but successful spreading and contamination.


Dragoyski K.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Stefanova B.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Kamenova I.,Agrobioinstitute Dragan Tzankov Blvd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The behaviour of several local and introduced plum cultivars to the natural infection of Plum pox virus - PPV has been investigated during a period of 20 years. The experiment was carried out at the experimental in collection, breeding and experimental orchards of RIMSA Troyan. Symptoms on the leaves, fruits, bark and wood have been followed throughout the vegetations. Classification has been accomplished based on cultivars' resistance to infection and tolerance whereas yield loss in quality and quantity is reported too. Studied plum cultivars were classified as follows: - Resistant: 'Jojo', does not accept the virus due to strongly expressed supersensitive reaction. - Cultivars difficult to be infected under the natural environment with insignificant yield losses, like 'Gabrovska'. - Cultivars with latent infection of PPV, and no symptoms infestation like 'Mirabelle de Nancy'. - Cultivars with high level of tolerance - the least symptoms or fruit damage - lower quality. - Sensitive cultivars with acceptable yield losses as 'Valevka' and some clones of 'Kyustendilska sinya sliva'. Propagation of these cultivars is justified only in case they have reasonable economic and gustatory qualities. They should be planted, however, at a special isolation area and population following the localizing regulation of vectors. Free of PPV infection planting material should be used for new plantations.


Kamenova I.,Agrobioinstitute Dragan Tsankov Blvd. | Borissova A.,Institute of Agriculture | Dragoyski K.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Stefanova B.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Sharka or plum pox has a long presence in Bulgaria. In this study, 790 plum, peach and apricot samples were analyzed by TAS-ELISA. 465 samples (58.9%) reacted positive for PPV. The highest level of PPV infection was detected in the plum orchards (86.06%), followed by the peach (46.5%) orchards/single grown trees and in the apricot (32.05%) orchards/single grown trees. Molecular typing performed by strain-specific IC-RT-PCR analyses showed that the most prevalent strain was PPV-M (46.7%), followed by PPV-Rec (43.9%) and PPV-D (7.9%). The rate of mixed infection was 1.5%. Distinct epidemiological situations depending on the stone-fruit species were evidenced. On plum, PPV-Rec was the most prevalent strain (69.1%), followed by PPV-M (20.1%) and PPV-D (8.3%). The rate of mixed infections was 2.5%. On the contrary to the plums, peaches and apricots were essentially infected by PPV-M (89.2 and 80.6 %, respectively). On apricot, PPV-Rec was detected more frequently than PPV-D (11.9 and 7.5% respectively), whereas on peach the opposite pattern was found (7.5 and 3.3% for PPV-D and PPV-Rec, respectively). To assess the genetic diversity, 27 isolates were partially characterised by direct sequencing of the PCR products spanning the (Cter)NIb-(Nter)CP and the (Cter)P3-6K1-(Nter)CI coding regions. Phylogenetic analysis of these isolates confirmed their RT-PCR-based strain typing. Bulgarian PPV-Rec isolates clustered with PPV-Rec isolates retrieved from the NCBI database in both analysed regions. Phylogenetic analyses of PPV-M isolates based on the NIb-CP genomic region showed that they fell into the Ma and Mb clusters, while on the base of the P3-6K1-CI genomic region, part of the isolates formed a third sub-cluster more related to Mb, than to Ma isolates. Regardless of the analysed region, the analyzed PPV-D isolates grouped together with D strain isolates from Europe, Canada and USA.


Minkov P.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Basic mother nursery from the blackcurrant cultivars 'Ometa', 'Titania', 'Hedda' and 'Silvergieters Schwarze' (Ribes) was put to procedures for biological certification based on complete excluding of mineral fertilizers and use only of permitted means for plant protection. Conversion has started since 2007, and in 2010 a certificate was obtained from the licensed company "Balkan Biocert" for biologically certified planting material, with which plantations for biological fruit production can be established. Rooting of mature cuttings from cultivars 'Ometa', 'Titania', 'Hedda' and 'Silvergieters Schwarze' took place under the same conditions. The results of the conducted observations showed that the percentage of rooting of the cultivars varied from 70% ('Hedda') to 96% ('Titania') obtained planting material had acceptable quality.


Dragoyski K.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Mihovska B.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Georgieva M.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Stefanova B.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Since 1992 in RIMSA Troyan a series of experiments have been carried out for obtaining, maintenance and preliminary propagation of virus-free planting material from raspberry. After a preliminary pomological selection and biological indexation on Rubus occidentalis and serological tests by ELISA, the complex of aphid-borne viruses and nematode-borne viruses (RRV, SLRV, TBRV, AMV) was controlled. Nuclear (pre-basic) plants were obtained from the major raspberry cultivars in our country, maintained in individual pots, sterile substrate, in isolation facilities, covered with net, as well as under in vitro conditions. A method was developed for quick preliminary propagation of the nuclear plants through root cuttings and adventitious buds. Shoot-forming capacity and vegetative characteristics and morphological features of 5 Bulgarian and 6 introduced cultivars were studied. The obtained transplants from the containers had a perfect root system and in spite of the fact that they did not attain the indicators of the Bulgarian standards with regard to the shoot thickness, they provided 100% rooting by planting in the field. Variants were elaborated to increase the efficiency of use of basic raspberry mother plantations.


Stoyanova T.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Minev I.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Hristov S.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The Troyan region has ones of the most suitable soil and climatic conditions for development of the raspberry production in Bulgaria. It is the greatest producing region of raspberry fruits in our country. The establishment of raspberry plantations began more than 60 years ago. Cultivar 'Marlborough' was grown for a long time. The main cultivars that have been planted were: 'Newburgh', 'Shopska Alena', 'Balgarski Rubin', 'Iskra', 'Malling Promise' and 'Malling Exploit'. In the past, the last two cultivars gave also the highest yields in the region (1100 kg/da). Morphological and biological characteristics of the cultivars were studied. In the last decades the areas, as well as the yields decreased drastically. In order to increase the yields, the raspberry plantations must occupy the most suitable locations with regard to exposure, soil, precipitations, coolness and avoiding of damages caused by colds and heats. The following cultivars are more adaptable to the contemporary climatic conditions of the present raspberry production in the Troyan region: 'Samodiva', 'Shopska Alena', 'Meeker' and 'Willamette'.


Dragoyski K.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Dinkova H.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Stefanova B.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The study was conducted during the 2003-2009 period in the Demonstrative Orchard of RIMSA Troyan. Technologies for sustainable fruit production were elaborated conserving the biological equilibrium in the mountain ecosystems of Bulgaria, in which the sloping terrains and low-productive lands prevail. The study included 3 plum cultivars grafted on rootstock 'Myrobolan'; 6 apple cultivars - on 'MM 106'; 4 sour cherry and 6 cherry cultivars - on 'Alcavo'. It was found that the local application of organic fertilizers in trenches, combined with the sod-mulch system for maintenance of the soil surface, improved the nutrient regime of lowproductive soils, protected them from erosion and conserved the balance of the ecosystem, without deteriorating the quality of fruit output. Cultivars were selected that are suitable for biological fruit production in mountainous conditions.


Dragoyski K.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

During the period of 23 years up to now, in RIMSA in Troyan, experiments for establishment and maintenance of two scion orchards of plums were carried out. The first orchard was established in 1988, with 318 trees of plum cultivars basic for the country. For a 15-years period of usage (till 2003), 17 mother trees infected with Plum pox virus (PPV) were registered and eradicated. In 2001, the second scion orchard was established, in the area of Boyadjievo, with 52 cultivars of 7 fruit species, including 11 plum cultivars, presented by 476 mother trees. Up to this moment 12 trees (2.52%) infected with PPV in the orchards were registered and eradicated. The experiment shows us that the maintenance of such scion orchards is possible if some minimum conditions are followed, such as: space isolation of the orchard from existing plantations and wild species of genus Prunus - 800 m; grass regeneration of the soil surface with cereal grasses; vector chemical control; permanent observation for symptoms appearance; annual testing of at least 1/3 rate of the mother trees serologically by double antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA.


Stoyanova T.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Dinkova H.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Minev I.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The market of pear fruits becomes obviously poor. One of the reasons is the limited assortment of tolerant cultivars to the economically important diseases for the species, widespread in the last decade, namely scab (Venturia pirina) and bacterial blight (Ervinia amylovora). During expedition investigations of the local plant resources in the Troyan region it was established that there is a great diversity of members of genus Pyrus, covering morphological and biological characteristics. Some of them were found only in separate micro regions. The greatest part of the discovered forms ripens in late August, early September. The predominant part of them has comparatively large sized fruits. The main emphasis of the study was their behaviour towards scab and bacterial blight. The pear form Spasovtsi was selected, which is characterized by late flowering. The fruits are medium sized with weight of 190 g and an attractive appearance. They ripen from mid-September to mid-October. It is distinguished for high and regular fertility. During the period of study no symptoms of scab and bacterial blight were found on pear Spasovtsi, which allows growing it for biological fruit production.


Lingorski V.,Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture | Kertikov T.,Institute of Forage Crops
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

Comparative testing of some annual untraditional drought-resistant cereal (foxtail millet and true millet) and legume crops (bitter vetch and chickpea) was conducted during 2011-2013 in the Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture (RIMSA) in Troyan (Bulgaria). The largest part of the forage yields had the stems in comparison with leaves and inflorescences. The chickpea had more green mass (12.82 t ha-1) and dry mass (3.27 t ha-1) yields than bitter vetch - respectively by 18.46% and 18.48%. Regarding the cereal crops it turned out that the true millet had more yields (12.98 t ha-1 green mass and 3.32 t ha-1 dry matter) than the foxtail millet (respectively 16.80% and 11.14%). Judging from the factual data it can be considered that the forage species studied in details are suitable for ecological fodder preparation in foothill regions of the Central Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria.

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