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Schraidt O.,Research Institute of Molecular Pathology
PLoS pathogens | Year: 2010

The correct organization of single subunits of multi-protein machines in a three dimensional context is critical for their functionality. Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are molecular machines with the capacity to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells and are fundamental for the biology of many pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria. A central component of T3SSs is the needle complex, a multiprotein structure that mediates the passage of effector proteins through the bacterial envelope. We have used cryo electron microscopy combined with bacterial genetics, site-specific labeling, mutational analysis, chemical derivatization and high-resolution mass spectrometry to generate an experimentally validated topographic map of a Salmonella typhimurium T3SS needle complex. This study provides insights into the organization of this evolutionary highly conserved nanomachinery and is the basis for further functional analysis.


Wray J.,University College London | Hartmann C.,Research Institute of Molecular Pathology
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) - undifferentiated cells originating from preimplantation stage embryos - have prolonged self-renewal capacity and are pluripotent. Activation of the canonical Wnt pathway is implicated in maintenance of and exit from the pluripotent state. Recent findings demonstrate that the essential mediator of canonical Wnt signaling, β-catenin, is dispensable for ESC maintenance; however, its activation inhibits differentiation through derepression of T cell factor 3 (Tcf3)-bound genes. Wnt agonists are useful in deriving ESCs from recalcitrant mouse strains and the rat and in nuclear reprogramming of somatic stem cells. We discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the regulation of ESC self-renewal and how its manipulation can improve pluripotent ESC derivation and maintenance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Busslinger M.,Research Institute of Molecular Pathology | Tarakhovsky A.,Rockefeller University
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2014

Immunity relies on the heterogeneity of immune cells and their ability to respond to pathogen challenges. In the adaptive immune system, lymphocytes display a highly diverse antigen receptor repertoire that matches the vast diversity of pathogens. In the innate immune system, the cell's heterogeneity and phenotypic plasticity enable flexible responses to changes in tissue homeostasis caused by infection or damage. The immune responses are calibrated by the graded activity of immune cells that can vary from yeast-like proliferation to lifetime dormancy. This article describes key epigenetic processes that contribute to the function of immune cells during health and disease. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.


Dickson B.J.,Research Institute of Molecular Pathology
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2010

In a bilaterally symmetric animal, the midline plays a key role in directing axon growth during wiring of the nervous system. Midline cells provide a variety of guidance cues for growing axons, to which different types of axons respond in different ways and at different times. For some axons, the midline is an intermediate target. They first seek it out, but then move on towards their final targets on the opposite side. For others, the midline is a repulsive barrier that keeps them on their own side of the midline. And for many of these axons the midline provides signals that guide them along specific lateral pathways or up and down the longitudinal axis.


Galan J.E.,Yale University | Lara-Tejero M.,Yale University | Marlovits T.C.,German Electron Synchrotron | Marlovits T.C.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Annual Review of Microbiology | Year: 2014

One of the most exciting developments in the field of bacterial pathogenesis in recent years is the discovery that many pathogens utilize complex nanomachines to deliver bacterially encoded effector proteins into target eukaryotic cells. These effector proteins modulate a variety of cellular functions for the pathogen's benefit. One of these protein-delivery machines is the type III secretion system (T3SS). T3SSs are widespread in nature and are encoded not only by bacteria pathogenic to vertebrates or plants but also by bacteria that are symbiotic to plants or insects. A central component of T3SSs is the needle complex, a supramolecular structure that mediates the passage of the secreted proteins across the bacterial envelope. Working in conjunction with several cytoplasmic components, the needle complex engages specific substrates in sequential order, moves them across the bacterial envelope, and ultimately delivers them into eukaryotic cells. The central role of T3SSs in pathogenesis makes them great targets for novel antimicrobial strategies. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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