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Dehghan E.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Ebadi M.T.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Naghdi Badi H.,Institute of Medicinal Plants Research | Shahriari F.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Plants | Year: 2010

Increasing from day to day tendency of human societies to plant based drug usage increased demand of secondary metabolite application. Although artificial production of these compounds greatly progressed, but the only way to achieve these fine medicinal compounds has been to extract them from plant resources. Alkaloid field, although very old, is still in its infancy with regard to being fully understood, and biotechnologically exploited. Up to now, approximately 5000 different alkaloids, in 15% of plants that belong to 150 families, have been recognized, that tropane alkaloids such as hyosyamine, scopolamine, atropine and cocaine, with a broad medical usage are a class of them. Industrial tropane alkaloid production by modern techniques such as cell and tissue culture, somatic hybridization, metabolic engineering and commercial large scale culture, is highly concerned nowadays and in this review, the authors have tried to point out some of the results obtained by application of these techniques. Source

Dehghan E.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Hosseini B.,Urmia University | Naghdi Badi H.,Institute of Medicinal Plants Research | Shahriari Ahmadi F.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Journal of Medicinal Plants | Year: 2010

More than 12,000 alkaloids are known in plants, mostly used as medicine with a world market value of about 4 billion US$. Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the most important economic source of morphinane alkaloids such as morphine, codeine, thebaine, narcotine and papaverine that are exploited by the pharmaceutical industry as analgesics, antitussives and anti-spasmodics. With regard to increasing demand for these compounds, the aim of this review is presenting an outlook of classical breeding programs that successfully applied for enhancing the alkaloid content of opium poppy. The latest biotechnological approaches also are discussed to give an outlook for future trends and possibilities. Source

Babazadeh Darjazi B.,Islamic Azad University at Roudehen | Rustaiyan A.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Taghizad Farid R.,Institute of Medicinal Plants Research | Golein B.,Citrus Research Station of Ramsar
Journal of Medicinal Plants | Year: 2011

Background: It is appear, that the harvesting time of fruit is one affecting factor on the amount of flavor constituents existed in fruit peel oil (aldehydes, alcohols and esters). Objective: The goal of the present study is to investigate on flavor constituents of page mandarin peel and their variations during a season. Methods: In the last part of November and February 2009, ten mature fruit were harvested and their Peel oil was extracted by using cold-press and eluted by using n-hexan, then analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Results: In the last part of November, the amounts of aldehydes, alcohols and esters existed in the fruit peel oil were 1.34, 1.87 and 0.17, respectively. In the last part of February, these amounts were 0.46, 1.06 and 0.04, respectively. Conclusion: Oxygenated constituents, especially decanal and linalool, showed remarkable decreased in their relative concentration as the fruit harvested lately, where as the concentration of limonene showed a corresponding increase. Source

Baghalian K.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Abdoshah S.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Khalighi-Sigaroodi F.,Institute of Medicinal Plants Research | Paknejad F.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

In arid and semi-arid regions where water availability is a major limitation, using plants with low water consumption is one way to manage available water efficiently. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) may be considered as an economical crop for fields with water scarcity due to its considerable adaptability to a wide range of climates and soils. A field experiment was conducted during 2007-2008 using complete randomized block design with four replications in order to evaluate the effect of drought stress on agro-morphological characters (fresh flower weight, dried flower yield, shoot weight and root weight), oil content, oil composition and apigenin content of chamomile. Drought stress had four different levels of soil moisture depletion (30%, 50%, 70% and 90%). Analysis of variance showed that drought stress decreased plant height, flower yield, shoot weight and apigenin content but it had no significant effect on oil content or oil composition. Impacts of drought stress on growth indices were evaluated as well and the results indicated that plant managed to maintain potential for biomass production under the drought stress. Growth analysis results as well as phytochemical properties of this plant showed that despite decrease in agronomical traits, chamomile could be proposed as a moderate drought resistant medicinal plant with a reasonable performance. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Baghalian K.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Sheshtamand M.S.,University of Zanjan | Jamshidi A.H.,Institute of Medicinal Plants Research
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2010

Saffron is highly valued for its unique aroma, taste, colour and medicinal properties. Iran is known, as one of the most important saffron producing countries but the genetic variability present in crocus in Iran is currently unknown. The main objectives of our research were: (1) evaluate phenotypic diversity among Iranian saffron populations; (2) compare phytochemical content between populations originating from different ecological areas; (3) determine possible correlations between phytochemical content and morphological traits; (4) identify yield-related traits for use in clonal selection programs and (5) estimate the broad sense heritability (hb 2) for the traits evaluated. In this study a combined analysis of variance was used to evaluate eight Iranian populations of Crocus sativus over a two-year period. The investigated characters were leaf number per plant, leaf length, flower number per plot, dry stigma weight per plot, spathe number and the content of crocins, picrocrocin and safranal. Statistical analysis showed that population had significant effect on most morphological parameters except leaf length and spathe number. Also it had significant effect on all phytochemical contents. Duncan's multiple range tests showed that populations were significantly different for most evaluated traits. Simple correlation analysis showed that dry stigma weight had significant and positive correlation with leaf number, flower number, picrocrocin and safranal (r = 0.954, 0.998, 0.830 and 0.881, respectively). The estimates of broad sense heritability were higher for flower related traits (hb 2 = 0.76 - 0.99). Cluster analysis did not reveal a clear relationship between diversity pattern and geographical origin. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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