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Khachaturian A.S.,Campaign to Prevent Alzheimers Disease by 2020 PAD2020 | Chapman J.,Tel Aviv University | Farrer L.,Boston University | Friedland R.P.,University of Louisville | And 15 more authors.
Alzheimer's and Dementia | Year: 2010

This article proposes the establishment of a United States-Israel Longitudinal Database for Healthy Aging and Preclinical Dementia as a prototype model for the eventual creation of an international database. It is envisioned that such a comprehensive international database, as a shared research resource, will provide the foundation for a systems approach to solve the dual public health problems of: (1) Early detection of individuals at an elevated risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, and (2) Developing interventions to delay onset of, or prevent, chronic brain disorders later in life. © 2010 The Alzheimers Association. All rights reserved.

Kulikov E.S.,Siberian State Medical University | Ogorodova L.M.,Siberian State Medical University | Freidin M.B.,Research Institute of Medical Genetics | Deev I.A.,Siberian State Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk | Year: 2013

This review summarizes the results of studies to identify the dominant mechanisms of development and persistence of inflammation in severe asthma and results of pharmacogenetic studies of determination response to drugs. These mechanisms could potentially be used for diagnostic purposes and become the new targets of asthma therapy. Pharmacogenetic information will enable the use of a personalized approach to the asthma management which will adjust the therapy technology and increase the possibility of achieving disease control.

Rowsey R.,Washington State University | Kashevarova A.,Washington State University | Kashevarova A.,Research Institute of Medical Genetics | Murdoch B.,Washington State University | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

A variety of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the association between trisomy and increasing maternal age in humans, virtually all of which assume that the underlying mechanisms involve meiotic errors. However, recently Hultén and colleagues [Hulten et al., 2010b] proposed a provocative model-the Oocyte Mosaicism Selection Model (OMSM)-that links age-dependent trisomy 21 to pre-meiotic errors in the ovary. Specifically, they propose that nondisjunctional events occur in a proportion of germ cells as they mitotically proliferate, resulting in mosaicism for trisomy 21. Assuming that the presence of an additional chromosome 21 delays meiotic progression, these cells would be ovulated later in reproductive life, resulting in an age-dependent increase in aneuploid eggs. Because this model has important clinical implications, we initiated studies to test it. We first analyzed oocytes from two trisomy 21 fetuses, combining immunostaining with FISH to determine the likelihood of detecting the additional chromosome 21 at different stages of meiosis. The detection of trisomy was enhanced during the earliest stage of prophase (leptotene), before homologs synapsed. Accordingly, in subsequent studies we examined the chromosome content of leptotene oocytes in seven second trimester female fetuses, analyzing three chromosomes commonly associated with human trisomies (i.e., 13, 16, and 21). In contrast to the prediction of the OMSM, we found no evidence of trisomy mosaicism for any chromosome. We conclude that errors in pre-meiotic germ cells are not a major contributor to human aneuploidy and do not provide an explanation for the age-related increase in trisomic conceptions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Makeeva O.A.,Research Institute of Medical Genetics | Sleptsov A.A.,Research Institute of Medical Genetics | Kulish E.V.,Research Institute of Medical Genetics | Barbarash O.L.,Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases | And 5 more authors.
Acta Naturae | Year: 2015

Comorbidity or a combination of several diseases in the same individual is a common and widely investigated phenomenon. However, the genetic background for non-random disease combinations is not fully understood. Modern technologies and approaches to genomic data analysis enable the investigation of the genetic profile of patients burdened with several diseases (polypathia, disease conglomerates) and its comparison with the profiles of patients with single diseases. An association study featuring three groups of patients with various combinations of cardiovascular disorders and a control group of relatively healthy individuals was conducted. Patients were selected as follows: presence of only one disease, ischemic heart disease (IHD); a combination of two diseases, IHD and arterial hypertension (AH); and a combination of several diseases, including IHD, AH, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and hypercholesterolemia (HC). Genotyping was performed using the "My Gene" genomic service (www.i-gene.ru). An analysis of 1,400 polymorphic genetic variants and their associations with the studied phenotypes are presented. A total of 14 polymorphic variants were associated with the phenotype "IHD only," including those in the APOB, CD226, NKX2-5, TLR2, DPP6, KLRB1, VDR, SCARB1, NEDD4L, and SREBF2 genes, and intragenic variants rs12487066, rs7807268, rs10896449, and rs944289. A total of 13 genetic markers were associated with the "IHD and AH" phenotype, including variants in the BTNL2, EGFR, CNTNAP2, SCARB1, and HNF1A genes, and intragenic polymorphisms rs801114, rs10499194, rs13207033, rs2398162, rs6501455, and rs1160312. A total of 14 genetic variants were associated with a combination of several diseases of cardiovascular continuum (CVC), including those in the TAS2R38, SEZ6L, APOA2, KLF7, CETP, ITGA4, RAD54B, LDLR, and MTAP genes, along with intragenic variants rs1333048, rs1333049, and rs6501455. One common genetic marker was identified for the "IHD only" and "IHD and AH" phenotypes: rs4765623 in the SCARB1 gene; two common genetic markers, rs663048 in SEZ6L and intragenic rs6501455, were identified for the "IHD and AH" phenotype and a combination of several diseases (syntropy); there were no common genetic markers for the "syntropy" and "IHD only" phenotypes. Classificatory analysis of the relationships between the associated genes and metabolic pathways revealed that lipid-metabolizing genes are involved in the development of all three CVC variants, whereas immunity-response genes are specific to the "IHD only" phenotype. The study demonstrated that comorbidity presents additional challenges in association studies of disease predisposition, since the genetic profile of combined forms of pathology can be markedly different from those for isolated "single" forms of a disease. © 2015 Park-media, Ltd.

Nazarenko M.S.,Tomsk State University | Markov A.V.,Tomsk State University | Lebedev I.N.,Tomsk State University | Freidin M.B.,Research Institute of Medical Genetics | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in context of cardiovascular diseases are of considerable interest. So far, our current knowledge of the DNA methylation profiles for atherosclerosis affected and healthy human vascular tissues is still limited. Using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation27 BeadChip, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in right coronary artery in the area of advanced atherosclerotic plaques, atherosclerotic-resistant internal mammary arteries, and great saphenous veins obtained from same patients with coronary heart disease. The resulting DNA methylation patterns were markedly different between all the vascular tissues. The genes hypomethylated in athero-prone arteries to compare with atherosclerotic-resistant arteries were predominately involved in regulation of inflammation and immune processes, as well as development. The great saphenous veins exhibited an increase of the DNA methylation age in comparison to the internal mammary arteries. Gene ontology analysis for genes harboring hypermethylated CpG-sites in veins revealed the enrichment for biological processes associated with the development. Four CpG-sites located within the MIR10B gene sequence and about 1 kb upstream of the HOXD4 gene were also confirmed as hypomethylated in the independent dataset of the right coronary arteries in the area of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in comparison with the other vascular tissues. The DNA methylation differences observed in vascular tissues of patients with coronary heart disease can provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the development of pathology and explanation for the difference in graft patency after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. © 2015 Nazarenko et al.

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