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Mardanova E.S.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Blokhina E.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Tsybalova L.M.,Research Institute of Influenza | Peyret H.,John Innes Center | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2017

Agroinfiltration of plant leaves with binary vectors carrying a gene of interest within a plant viral vector is a rapid and efficient method for protein production in plants. Previously, we constructed a self-replicating vector, pA7248AMV, based on the genetic elements of potato virus X (PVX), and have shown that this vector can be used for the expression of recombinant proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. However, this vector is almost 18 kb long and therefore not convenient for genetic manipulation. Furthermore, for efficient expression of the target protein it should be co-agroinfiltrated with an additional binary vector expressing a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing. Here, we improved this expression system by creating the novel pEff vector. Its backbone is about 5 kb shorter than the original vector and it contains an expression cassette for the silencing suppressor, P24, from grapevine leafroll-associated virus-2 alongside PVX genetic elements, thus eliminating the need of co-agroinfiltration. The pEff vector provides green fluorescent protein expression levels of up to 30% of total soluble protein. The novel vector was used for expression of the influenza vaccine candidate, M2eHBc, consisting of an extracellular domain of influenza virus M2 protein (M2e) fused to hepatitis B core antigen. Using the pEff system, M2eHBc was expressed to 5–10% of total soluble protein, several times higher than with original pA7248AMV vector. Plant-produced M2eHBc formed virus-like particles in vivo, as required for its use as a vaccine. The new self-replicating pEff vector could be used for fast and efficient production of various recombinant proteins in plants. © 2017 Mardanova, Blokhina, Tsybalova, Peyret, Lomonossoff and Ravin.


Smirnov V.S.,ZAO CytoNIR | Zarubaev V.V.,Research Institute of Influenza | Anfimov P.M.,Research Institute of Influenza | Shtro A.A.,Research Institute of Influenza
Voprosy Virusologii | Year: 2012

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the modulating effect of glutamyl-tryptophan (EW), glycyrrhizic acid (GA), and their combination on the course of experimental infection caused by influenza A (H3N2) virus in mice. The animals were infected with influenza A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) virus in a dose of 1 or 10 LD50. GA (10 mg/kg body weight) and EW (0.1, 10, and 1000 μg/kg) alone or in combination were intraperitoneally injected for 5 days, starting on day 1 of virus infection. Rimantadine 50 mg/kg/day was used as a comparison drug. The combination of EW (1000 μg/kg) and GA (10 mg/kg) was ascertained to exert the maximum protective effect manifesting itself in reducing the death of infected animals (by 75-79% compared to the control depending on the viral dose) and the titers of viruses accumulated in the lung (5-6 log EID50) and in preventing lung tissue edema and inflammation. The noted effect was comparable with that seen in the use of rimantadine. The agents used alone had a lower efficacy than rimantadine. The findings permit the combination of GA and EW to be considered to be a promising agent for the treatment of influenza.


Mirgorodskaya O.A.,Research Institute of Influenza | Korner R.,Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry | Kozmin Y.P.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Roepstorff P.,University of Southern Denmark
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Amino acid analysis is among the most accurate methods for absolute quantification of proteins and peptides. Here, we combine acid hydrolysis with the addition of isotopically labeled standard amino acids and analysis by mass spectrometry for accurate and sensitive protein quantitation. Quantitation of less than 10 fmol of protein standards with errors below 10% has been demonstrated using this method (1).


Vasin A.V.,Research Institute of Influenza | Temkina O.A.,Research Institute of Influenza | Egorov V.V.,Research Institute of Influenza | Klotchenko S.A.,Research Institute of Influenza | And 2 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2014

Influenza A virus is one of the major human pathogens. Despite numerous efforts to produce absolutely effective anti-influenza drugs or vaccines, no such agent has been developed yet. One of the main reasons for this complication is the high mutation rate and the specific structure of influenza A viruses genome. For more than 25 years since the first mapping of the viral genome, it was believed that its 8 genome segments encode 10 proteins. However, the proteome of influenza A viruses has turned out to be much more complex than previously thought. In 2001, the first accessory protein, PB1-F2, translated from the alternative open reading frame, was discovered. Subsequently, six more proteins, PB1-N40, PA-X, PA-N155, PA-N182, M42, and NS3, have been found. It is important to pay close attention to these novel proteins in order to evaluate their role in the pathogenesis of influenza, especially in the case of outbreaks of human infections with new avian viruses, such as H5N1 or H7N9. In this review we summarize the data on the molecular mechanisms used by influenza A viruses to expand their proteome and on the possible functions of the recently discovered viral proteins. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Koel B.F.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Burke D.F.,University of Cambridge | Bestebroer T.M.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Van Der Vliet S.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 17 more authors.
Science | Year: 2013

The molecular basis of antigenic drift was determined for the hemagglutinin (HA) of human influenza A/H3N2 virus. From 1968 to 2003, antigenic change was caused mainly by single amino acid substitutions, which occurred at only seven positions in HA immediately adjacent to the receptor binding site. Most of these substitutions were involved in antigenic change more than once. Equivalent positions were responsible for the recent antigenic changes of influenza B and A/H1N1 viruses. Substitution of a single amino acid at one of these positions substantially changed the virus-specific antibody response in infected ferrets. These findings have potentially far-reaching consequences for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that govern influenza viruses.


Plotnikova M.A.,Research Institute of Influenza | Klotchenko S.A.,Research Institute of Influenza | Vasin A.V.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique
Journal of Immunological Methods | Year: 2016

Cytokines are global mediators of cellular communications that are involved in broad array of biological processes, including the immunological and inflammatory mechanisms of virus-host interactions. Measuring the gene expression of simultaneously expressed cytokines is necessary for understanding the pathogenesis of many viral infections, including influenza. We developed a multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of the following human cytokines: IL-1B, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12B, IL-18, IFN-γ and TNF. The assay consisted of three sets of multiple qPCRs; in each qPCR, three target cytokines and reference GAPDH genes were amplified. The assay provided a precise and sensitive quantification of cytokine gene expression with a 20 fmol limit of detection and a 1.5% coefficient of variation. This method was successfully applied to cytokine profiling in epithelial A549 cells that were infected with A/California/07/09 (H1N1pdm2009) virus. © 2016 Elsevier B.V..


PubMed | Research Institute of Influenza and Polytechnic University of Mozambique
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2016

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a segmented negative-sense RNA virus that causes seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics in humans. Two regions (nucleotide positions 82-148 and 497-564) in the positive-sense RNA of the NS segment fold into a multi-branch loop or hairpin structures.We studied 25,384 NS segment positive-sense RNA unique sequences of human and non-human IAVs in order to predict secondary RNA structures of the 82-148 and 497-564 regions using RNAfold software, and determined their host- and lineage-specific distributions. Hairpins prevailed in avian and avian-origin human IAVs, including H1N1pdm1918 and H5N1. In human and swine IAV hairpins distribution varied between evolutionary lineages.These results suggest a possible functional role for these RNA secondary structures and the need for experimental evaluation of these structures in the influenza life cycle.


PubMed | Research Institute of Influenza and Tyva Republic Regional office of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing Rospotrebnadzor
Type: | Journal: Archives of virology | Year: 2017

In the spring of 2016, a loss of wild birds was observed during the monitoring of avian influenza virus activity in the Republic of Tyva. That outbreak was caused by influenza H5N8 virus of clade 2.3.4.4. In the fall, viruses of H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 were propagated in European countries. This paper presents some results of analysis of the virus strains isolated during the spring and fall seasons in 2016 in the Russian Federation. The investigated strains were highly pathogenic for mice, and some of their antigenic and genetic features differed from those of an H5N8 strain that circulated in 2014 in Russia.


PubMed | Research Institute of Influenza, Saint Petersburg State University, Russian Academy of Sciences and RAS Institute of Macromolecular Compounds
Type: | Journal: Journal of biotechnology | Year: 2016

Creation of multifunctional nanoplatforms is one of the new approaches to complex treatment and diagnosis with the monitoring of the curative process. Inclusion of various components into the drug delivery system may reduce toxicity and enhance or modify the therapeutic effects of medicines. In particular, some properties of metal nanoparticles and nanoclusters provide the ability to create new systems for treatment and diagnosis of diseases, biocatalysis and imaging of objects. For example, the ability of metal nanoparticles to enhance the quantum yield of luminescence can be used in bioimaging and therapy. The aim of the research was to construct and examine a multicomponent system based on DNA-polycation compact structure with the inclusion of silver nanoparticles and luminescent dye as a model system for delivery of genes and drugs with the possibility of modification and enhancement of their action.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Public Health NIPH, Research Institute of Influenza, University of Hong Kong and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC public health | Year: 2016

The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN) has established a prospective, active surveillance, hospital-based epidemiological study to collect epidemiological and virological data for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres over several consecutive seasons. It focuses exclusively on severe cases of influenza requiring hospitalization. A standard protocol is shared between sites allowing comparison and pooling of results. During the 2014-2015 influenza season, the GIHSN included seven coordinating sites from six countries (St. Petersburg and Moscow, Russian Federation; Prague, Czech Republic; Istanbul, Turkey; Beijing, China; Valencia, Spain; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Here, we present the detailed epidemiological and influenza vaccine effectiveness findings for the Northern Hemisphere 2014-2015 influenza season.

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