Sorqvist P.,University of Gävle |
Sorqvist P.,Linköping University |
Hedblom D.,University of Chicago |
Hedblom D.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics |
And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Participants tasted two cups of coffee, decided which they preferred, and then rated each coffee. They were told (in lure) that one of the cups contained "eco-friendly" coffee while the other did not, although the two cups contained identical coffee. In Experiments 1 and 3, but not in Experiment 2, the participants were also told which cup contained which type of coffee before they tasted. The participants preferred the taste of, and were willing to pay more for, the "eco-friendly" coffee, at least those who scored high on a questionnaire on attitudes toward sustainable consumer behavior (Experiment 1). High sustainability consumers were also willing to pay more for "eco-friendly" coffee, even when they were told, after their decision, that they preferred the non-labeled alternative (Experiment 2). Moreover, the eco-label effect does not appear to be a consequence of social desirability, as participants were just as biased when reporting the taste estimates and willingness to pay anonymously (Experiment 3). Eco labels not only promote a willingness to pay more for the product but also lead to a more favorable perceptual experience of it. © 2013 Sörqvist et al.
Sahlgren G.H.,Institute of Economic Affairs |
Sahlgren G.H.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics
Economic Affairs | Year: 2014
In recent decades, privatisation has become a mainstream policy option considered by politicians worldwide to improve the quality of schooling. This paper discusses the theoretical reasoning underlying the links between privatisation and education quality/productivity, and evaluates the empirical research. For privatisation to function well, it is crucial that the right competitive incentives exist, which in turn requires specific system design. While the cross-national literature consistently indicates positive long-term effects of private provision, the within-country literature is more mixed (although there is very little evidence of negative effects). Yet it is important to note the significant flaws in the system design of many privatisation initiatives, which have unsurprisingly ensured that the effects of these initiatives thus far have been small or moderate at best. Flawed privatisations are unlikely to yield very strong gains. The policy implication is that politicians must pay careful attention to system design when privatising their education systems. © 2014 Institute of Economic Affairs.
Ward M.E.,University of Bristol |
McMahon G.,University of Bristol |
St Pourcain B.,University of Bristol |
Evans D.M.,University of Bristol |
And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10-10) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10-04 and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life variation likely to be related to ultimate educational attainment. © 2014 Ward et al.
Norback P.-J.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics |
Persson L.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics |
Tag J.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics
International Journal of Industrial Organization | Year: 2014
In industries with network effects, incumbents' installed bases create barriers to entry that discourage entrepreneurs from developing new innovations. Yet, entry is not the only commercialization route for entrepreneurs. We show that the option of selling to an incumbent increases the innovation incentives for entrepreneurs when the network effects are strong and incumbents compete to preemptively acquire innovations. Thus, we establish that network effects and installed bases do not necessarily restrict the innovation incentives and that network effects promote acquisitions over entry. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Mosing M.A.,Karolinska Institutet |
Pedersen N.L.,Karolinska Institutet |
Cesarini D.,New York University |
Cesarini D.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics |
And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control - traits also associated with neuroticism - and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of. 41,. 45, and. 30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious) and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control). We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of dopaminergic neural systems. © 2012 Mosing et al.
Delmar F.,Lund University |
Delmar F.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics |
McKelvie A.,Syracuse University |
Wennberg K.,Stockholm School of Economics |
Wennberg K.,Ratio Institute
Technovation | Year: 2013
The performance of new firms is important for economic development but research has produced limited knowledge about the key relationships among growth, profitability, and survival for new firms. Based on evolutionary theory, we develop a model about how new firms resolve uncertainty about their ability to prosper in a market by monitoring changes in profitability. Our model predicts selection pressures to weed out underperforming firms and learning in order to allow survivors to improve performance and grow. We test our theory using a unique panel of knowledge-intensive new firms in Sweden. We find strong support for the notion that profitability enhances both survival and growth, and growth helps profitability but has a negative effect on survival. Implications are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Cesarini D.,New York University |
Johannesson M.,Stockholm School of Economics |
Lindqvist E.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics |
Apicella C.,Harvard University
Behavior Genetics | Year: 2011
A robust positive correlation between height and intelligence, as measured by IQ tests, has been established in the literature. This paper makes several contributions toward establishing the causes of this association. First, we extend the standard bivariate ACE model to account for assortative mating. The more general theoretical framework provides several key insights, including formulas to decompose a cross-trait genetic correlation into components attributable to assortative mating and pleiotropy and to decompose a cross-trait within-family correlation. Second, we use a large dataset of male twins drawn from Swedish conscription records and examine how well genetic and environmental factors explain the association between (i) height and intelligence and (ii) height and military aptitude, a professional psychogologist's assessment of a conscript's ability to deal with wartime stress. For both traits, we find suggestive evidence of a shared genetic architecture with height, but we demonstrate that point estimates are very sensitive to assumed degrees of assortative mating. Third, we report a significant within-family correlation between height and intelligence (ρ̂=0.10),suggesting that pleiotropy might be at play. © 2010 The Author(s).
Welander A.,Lund University |
Lyttkens C.H.,Lund University |
Nilsson T.,Lund University |
Nilsson T.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2015
Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example CÔte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. © 2015.
Klaesson J.,Center for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics |
Oner O.,Center for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics |
Oner O.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics
Review of Regional Studies | Year: 2015
Retail is concentrated in areas where demand is high. A measure of market potential can be used to calculate place-specific demand for retail services. The effect of distance on market potential depends on the willingness of consumers to travel for the products they purchase. The spatial reach of demand is frequently operationalized using a distance-decay function. The purpose of this paper is to estimate such distance-decay functions for different branches of the retail sector. The paper uses spatial data from the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results indicate that, in line with theory, there are indeed differences in the distance decay of demand among retail subsectors. © 2015, Southern Regional Science Association.
Mollerstrom J.,George Mason University |
Mollerstrom J.,Harvard University |
Mollerstrom J.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics |
Seim D.,University of Toronto |
Seim D.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution. © 2014 Mollerstrom Seim.