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Sahlgren G.H.,Institute of Economic Affairs | Sahlgren G.H.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics
Economic Affairs | Year: 2014

In recent decades, privatisation has become a mainstream policy option considered by politicians worldwide to improve the quality of schooling. This paper discusses the theoretical reasoning underlying the links between privatisation and education quality/productivity, and evaluates the empirical research. For privatisation to function well, it is crucial that the right competitive incentives exist, which in turn requires specific system design. While the cross-national literature consistently indicates positive long-term effects of private provision, the within-country literature is more mixed (although there is very little evidence of negative effects). Yet it is important to note the significant flaws in the system design of many privatisation initiatives, which have unsurprisingly ensured that the effects of these initiatives thus far have been small or moderate at best. Flawed privatisations are unlikely to yield very strong gains. The policy implication is that politicians must pay careful attention to system design when privatising their education systems. © 2014 Institute of Economic Affairs. Source

Mosing M.A.,Karolinska Institutet | Pedersen N.L.,Karolinska Institutet | Cesarini D.,New York University | Cesarini D.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control - traits also associated with neuroticism - and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of. 41,. 45, and. 30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious) and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control). We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of dopaminergic neural systems. © 2012 Mosing et al. Source

Delmar F.,Lund University | Delmar F.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics | McKelvie A.,Syracuse University | Wennberg K.,Stockholm School of Economics | Wennberg K.,Ratio Institute
Technovation | Year: 2013

The performance of new firms is important for economic development but research has produced limited knowledge about the key relationships among growth, profitability, and survival for new firms. Based on evolutionary theory, we develop a model about how new firms resolve uncertainty about their ability to prosper in a market by monitoring changes in profitability. Our model predicts selection pressures to weed out underperforming firms and learning in order to allow survivors to improve performance and grow. We test our theory using a unique panel of knowledge-intensive new firms in Sweden. We find strong support for the notion that profitability enhances both survival and growth, and growth helps profitability but has a negative effect on survival. Implications are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Welander A.,Lund University | Lyttkens C.H.,Lund University | Nilsson T.,Lund University | Nilsson T.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2015

Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example CÔte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. © 2015. Source

Klaesson J.,Center for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics | Oner O.,Center for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics | Oner O.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics
Review of Regional Studies | Year: 2015

Retail is concentrated in areas where demand is high. A measure of market potential can be used to calculate place-specific demand for retail services. The effect of distance on market potential depends on the willingness of consumers to travel for the products they purchase. The spatial reach of demand is frequently operationalized using a distance-decay function. The purpose of this paper is to estimate such distance-decay functions for different branches of the retail sector. The paper uses spatial data from the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results indicate that, in line with theory, there are indeed differences in the distance decay of demand among retail subsectors. © 2015, Southern Regional Science Association. Source

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