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Kim N.-H.,Research Institute of Immunobiology | Hong B.-K.,Research Institute of Immunobiology | Choi S.Y.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Kwon H.M.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

The activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells 5(NFAT5), a well-known osmoprotective factor, can be induced by isotonic stimuli, such as activated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). It is unclear, however, how NFAT5 discriminates between isotonic and hypertonic stimuli. In this study we identified a novel context-dependent suppression of NFAT5 target gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a high salt (NaCl) concentration. Although LPS and NaCl both used NFAT5 as a core transcription factor, these stimuli mutually inhibited distinct sets of NFAT5 targets within the cells. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for this inhibition, the source of ROS differed depending on the context: mitochondria for high salt and xanthine oxidase for TLRs. Specifically, the high salt-induced suppression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) production was mediated through the ROS-induced inhibition of NFAT5 binding to the IL-6 promoter. The context-dependent inhibition of NFAT5 target gene expression was also confirmed in mouse spleen and kidney tissues that were cotreated with LPS and high salt. Taken together, our data suggest that ROS function as molecular sensors to discriminate between TLR ligation and osmotic stimuli in RAW 264.7 macrophages, directing NFAT5 activity toward proinflammatory or hypertonic responses in a context-dependent manner. © 2013 KSBMB. Source

You S.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Cho C.-S.,Research Institute of Immunobiology | Cho C.-S.,Catholic University of Korea | Lee I.,Institute for Systems Biology | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that primarily attacks synovial joints. Despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment of RA, novel molecular targets are still needed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and the therapeutic outcomes. Here, we present a systems approach that can effectively 1) identify core RA-associated genes (RAGs), 2) reconstruct RA-perturbed networks, and 3) select potential targets for diagnosis and treatments of RA. By integrating multiple gene expression datasets previously reported, we first identified 983 core RAGs that show RA dominant differential expression, compared to osteoarthritis (OA), in the multiple datasets. Using the core RAGs, we then reconstructed RA-perturbed networks that delineate key RA associated cellular processes and transcriptional regulation. The networks revealed that synovial fibroblasts play major roles in defining RA-perturbed processes, anti-TNF-α therapy restored many RA-perturbed processes, and 19 transcription factors (TFs) have major contribution to deregulation of the core RAGs in the RA-perturbed networks. Finally, we selected a list of potential molecular targets that can act as metrics or modulators of the RA-perturbed networks. Therefore, these network models identify a panel of potential targets that will serve as an important resource for the discovery of therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers, as well as providing novel insights into RA pathogenesis. © 2012 You et al. Source

Kim W.-U.,Catholic University of Korea | Kim W.-U.,Research Institute of Immunobiology | Min S.-Y.,Research Institute of Immunobiology | Hwang S.-H.,Research Institute of Immunobiology | And 5 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2010

Summary Defective control of T cell apoptosis is considered to be one of the pathogenetic mechanisms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Oestrogen has been known to predispose women to SLE and also to exacerbate activity of SLE; however, the role of oestrogen in the apoptosis of SLE T cells has not yet been documented. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of oestrogen on the activation-induced cell death of T cells in SLE patients. The results demonstrated that oestradiol decreased the apoptosis of SLE T cells stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus ionomycin in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, oestradiol down-regulated the expression of Fas ligand (FasL) in activated SLE T cells at the both protein and mRNA levels. In contrast, testosterone increased FasL expression dose-dependently in SLE T cells stimulated with PMA plus ionomycin. The inhibitory effect of oestradiol on FasL expression was mediated through binding to its receptor, as co-treatment of tamoxifen, an oestrogen receptor inhibitor, completely nullified the oestradiol-induced decrease in FasL mRNA expression. Moreover, pre-treatment of FasL-transfected L5178Y cells with either oestradiol or anti-FasL antibody inhibited significantly the apoptosis of Fas-sensitive Hela cells when two types of cells were co-cultured. These data suggest that oestrogen inhibits activation-induced apoptosis of SLE T cells by down-regulating the expression of FasL. Oestrogen inhibition of T cell apoptosis may allow for the persistence of autoreactive T cells, thereby exhibiting the detrimental action of oestrogen on SLE activity. © 2010 British Society for Immunology. Source

Kim K.-J.,Research Institute of Immunobiology | Kim K.-J.,Catholic University of Korea | Cho C.-S.,Research Institute of Immunobiology | Cho C.-S.,Catholic University of Korea | And 2 more authors.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

Accumulating evidences have documented that angiogenesis is closely linked to inflammation and regulators of angiogenesis play key roles in various inflammatory conditions. PlGF is an angiogenic protein belonging to the VEGF family and is upregulated mainly in pathologic conditions. Recently, PlGF was discovered having a proinflammatory role in inflammatory arthritis and its serum level drew attention not only as a useful surrogate biomarker but also a potential therapeutic target in atherosclerosis and various cancers. Particularly, PlGF has attractive clinical values because endogenous PlGF is redundant for vascular development and physiological vessel maintenance in healthy adults. However, there have been conflicting results about the efficacy of PlGF inhibition depending on the experimental and clinical settings. Further close investigations for resolving the puzzle of PlGF biology are required. Source

Yoo S.-A.,Research Institute of Immunobiology | You S.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Yoon H.-J.,Research Institute of Immunobiology | Kim D.-H.,Research Institute of Immunobiology | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2012

An accumulation of misfolded proteins can trigger a cellular survival response in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we found that ER stress-associated gene signatures were highly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviums and synovial cells. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and IL-1β, increased the expression of GRP78/BiP, a representative ER chaperone, in RA synoviocytes. RA synoviocytes expressed higher levels of GRP78 than osteoarthritis (OA) synoviocytes when stimulated by thapsigargin or proinflammatory cytokines. Down-regulation of Grp78 transcripts increased the apoptosis of RA synoviocytes while abolishing TNF- or TGF-β-induced synoviocyte proliferation and cyclin D1 up-regulation. Conversely, overexpression of the Grp78 gene prevented synoviocyte apoptosis. Moreover, Grp78 small interfering RNA inhibited VEGF 165-induced angiogenesis in vitro and also significantly impeded synoviocyte proliferation and angiogenesis in Matrigel implants engrafted into immunodeficient mice. Additionally, repeated intraarticular injections of BiP-inducible factor X, a selective GRP78 inducer, increased synoviocyte proliferation and angiogenesis in the joints of mice with experimental OA. In contrast, mice with Grp78 haploinsufficiency exhibited the suppression of experimentally induced arthritis and developed a limited degree of synovial proliferation and angiogenesis. In summary, this study shows that the ER chaperone GRP78 is crucial for synoviocyte proliferation and angiogenesis, the pathological hallmark of RA. © 2012 Yoo et al. Source

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