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Warabieda W.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice
Horticultural Science | Year: 2015

The effect of two-spotted spider mite populations (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on the yield and growth parameters of the early-season apple cv. Katja was evaluated during a 3-year study. In the case of the colonisation of apple trees exceeding 1,462, 2,760 and 1,548 cumulative mite days (CMDs) in the subsequent years of research, a significant reduction of the cumulative yield (14 kg/tree) and of the cumulative trunk cross sectional area increase (5.7 cm2) was observed. No significant effect of spider mites on the average weight of the fruit was observed, while the pest affected fruit colouration. The calculated values of economic injury level were 60.5, 155.5 and 51.8 CMDs in subsequent years of the study, respectively. These values are much lower than the action threshold recommended in Poland and elaborated for the European red mite - Panonychus ulmi (Koch) on apple trees. The results suggest that the tolerance of early-season apple cultivars to T. urticae may be lower when compared to late-season varieties infested with P. ulmi; therefore, the decision to implement pest management for two-spotted spider mite should be taken at a lower infestation threshold than previously thought. Source


Mieszczakowska-Frac M.,Research Institute of Horticulture | Buczek M.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice | Kruczynska D.,Research Institute of Horticulture | Markowski J.,Research Institute of Horticulture
Polish Journal of Natural Sciences | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of processing red-fleshed apples into cloudy juices. In a series of experiments on laboratory and semi-technological scale, the effect of enzymatic treatment of the pulp, an addition of ascorbic acid, centrifugation of the must and storage conditions on the physicochemical quality of the finished juice were investigated. The following red-fleshed apple cultivars were used: "Trinity", "Maypole", "Alex Red", and as the control: "Shampion" and "Idared" cultivars. Studies have shown that an addition of ascorbic acid during pressing, in the amount of 500-100 mg kg-1 of pulp, increased anthocyanins extraction into juice and prevented their oxidation. The enzymatic treatment of the pulp did not affect the pressing yield, and adversely affected the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. It was found that due to the rapid degradation of anthocyanins the red-fleshed apple juices should be stored at low temperatures. Source


Kozak M.,Rzeszow University of Technology | Iefremova O.,Rzeszow University of Technology | Szkola J.,Rzeszow University of Technology | Sas D.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice
Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Whether one should use a public e-mail account (e.g., Gmail, Yahoo!) or an institutional one (e.g., @wsiz.rzeszow.pl, @medicine.ox.ac.uk) as an address for correspondence is an important aspect of scientific communication. Some authors consider that public e-mail services are unprofessional and insecure, whereas others say that, in a dynamically changing working environment, public e-mail addresses allow readers to contact authors long after they have changed their workplace. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed how often authors of scientific papers provided e-mail addresses that were either public or institution based. We selected from the Web of Science database 1,000 frequently cited and 1,000 infrequently cited articles (all of the latter were noncited articles) published in 2000, 2005, and 2010, and from these we analyzed 26,937 e-mail addresses. The results showed that approximately three fourths of these addresses were institutional, but there was an increasing trend toward using public e-mail addresses over the period studied. No significant differences were found between frequently and infrequently cited papers in this respect. Further research is now needed to access the motivations and perceptions of scholars when it comes to their use of either public or institutional e-mail accounts. © 2014 ASIS&T. Source


The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of applying methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) and acibenzolar-S-methyl (BTH) to reduce the population of mites in apple orchards. The experiment was performed on apple trees cv. "Golden Delicious" grown in an orchard according to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) principles. The study showed that of the two elicitors, JA-Me restricted the population of the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi Koch) more strongly than BTH. Neither of these compounds significantly affected the size of the population of Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten-a beneficial predatory mite feeding on spider mites in apple orchards. The study also showed no adverse effects of these compounds on the yield and growth of apple trees, nor on their reproduction as measured by seed production. Studies indicate that the use of methyl jasmonate against spider mites on apple trees can complement the use of conventional acaricides as well as the introduction of predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae in the protection of apple orchards. © 2015 Taylor and Francis. Source


Mika A.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice | Buler Z.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Hortorum Cultus | Year: 2015

Dwarf and semidwarf apple trees planted at high density orchard are poorly illuminated when they come into full bearing. Insufficient illumination has adverse effect on apple red blush. Studies were carried out in years 2009–2013 in the Institute of Horticulture at Skierniewice. The object of the study were 12-year-old apple trees of ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Gala’. Trees were grafted on semi-dwarf M.26 rootstock, planted at 4 × 2 m, trained to the spindle system, had been pruned until the spring of 2009 by the renewal method. Prior to the trial the trees were 3 m of height and 2.5 m in spread. To improve fruit quality, additional four pruning treatments were applied in 2009–2013. They were: 1. Removing the lowest branches up to 1 m above the ground; 2. Heading annual shoots at the tree top and the base of the canopy; 3. Cutting out a slim waist in the middle part of the canopy; 4. Slimming the tree top; 5. Trees in the standard spindle form treated with renewal pruning served as the control. All the pruning systems ensured high yields. Only the pruning to a slim waist and slimming the tree top improved light penetration to the interior part of the tree canopy, fruit size and color. Pruning treatments slimming tree silhouette can solve the problem of poor quality apples in densely planted orchards. © by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Lublinie, Lublin 2015 Source

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