Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice

Skierniewice, Poland

Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice

Skierniewice, Poland
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Sikorska-Zimny K.M.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice | Wedzisz A.,Medical University of Lódz
Journal of Elementology | Year: 2017

Spinosad is an insecticide with a completely unique and novel mode of action. It is used in a great variety of crops: fruit, vegetables, and ornamental plants. Its dissipation was studied in three vegetables: cabbage (the cultivar Stonehead), carrot (cv. Perfekcja) and onion (cv. Wolska). The vegetables were sprayed with a dose of 96 g a.i. ha-1 of spinosad and collected after 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. The residues were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection after purification on a column with methanol. Elements were determined with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS), and the determinations were made on the 1st and 7th day after spraying. The determined amounts of spinosad were in the range of 0.943-0.072 mg kg-1 for carrot and onion, respectively, on the 7th day. Spinosad decomposed completely in cabbage, and the highest level of the pesticide after 7 days remained in carrot, although the shape of all decomposition curves is quite similar. Most elements in onion were on significantly higher levels after sprays than in the control variant, opposite to cabbage, where higher levels of the analyzed elements were determined in the control. Concentrations of the elements determined in carrot were statistically significant for manganese, iron and magnesium. The spinosad decomposition time and the content of elements depend on the species of vegetables. The amount of spinosad on day 7 found in onion and cabbage was equal to the Maximum Residue Level (MRL) available in the literature. © 2017, Polish Society Magnesium Research. All rights reserved.

Jankiewicz L.S.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice | Dyki B.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice | Machlanska A.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice | Dubert F.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae | Year: 2017

Anatomy and surface ultrastructure of the galls induced on oak leaves by the insects - Neuroterus numismalis (Ol.) and Cynips (Diplolepis) quercusfolii L. - were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a light microscope (LM). The observations in SEM and in LM enabled a detailed description of these galls and comparison of their structure with that of the typical oak leaf. In N. numismalis gall, the external distal tissues were classified as similar to phellem (cork), phellogen, and phelloderm, and a lateral marginal tissue as parenchyma with the likely role of a storage tissue. In the young C. quercusfolii gall, the cells of internal, nutritive tissue, on which the larva is grazing, formed globules rising above the surface of larval chamber. Many of them seemed to be destroyed by the larval action. In the gall which attained half of its final size, the tissues near the larval chamber were already partly lignified. The microorganisms (mainly fungi) which live in the oak phyllosphere, occurred also on the galls. We believe that the deep changes in the morphogenetic program of a leaf, which are caused by the gall-forming insects, are impossible without the transfer and the integration of the insect genetic material with that of the host plant. We also postulate that a larva secrets as yet hypothetical substances, which redirect the nutrients transport from the leaf blade towards the gall and support its vital functions. © The Author(s) 2016.

Mieszczakowska-Frac M.,Research Institute of Horticulture | Buczek M.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice | Kruczynska D.,Research Institute of Horticulture | Markowski J.,Research Institute of Horticulture
Polish Journal of Natural Sciences | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of processing red-fleshed apples into cloudy juices. In a series of experiments on laboratory and semi-technological scale, the effect of enzymatic treatment of the pulp, an addition of ascorbic acid, centrifugation of the must and storage conditions on the physicochemical quality of the finished juice were investigated. The following red-fleshed apple cultivars were used: "Trinity", "Maypole", "Alex Red", and as the control: "Shampion" and "Idared" cultivars. Studies have shown that an addition of ascorbic acid during pressing, in the amount of 500-100 mg kg-1 of pulp, increased anthocyanins extraction into juice and prevented their oxidation. The enzymatic treatment of the pulp did not affect the pressing yield, and adversely affected the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. It was found that due to the rapid degradation of anthocyanins the red-fleshed apple juices should be stored at low temperatures.

Kozak M.,Rzeszow University of Technology | Iefremova O.,Rzeszow University of Technology | Szkola J.,Rzeszow University of Technology | Sas D.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice
Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Whether one should use a public e-mail account (e.g., Gmail, Yahoo!) or an institutional one (e.g.,, as an address for correspondence is an important aspect of scientific communication. Some authors consider that public e-mail services are unprofessional and insecure, whereas others say that, in a dynamically changing working environment, public e-mail addresses allow readers to contact authors long after they have changed their workplace. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed how often authors of scientific papers provided e-mail addresses that were either public or institution based. We selected from the Web of Science database 1,000 frequently cited and 1,000 infrequently cited articles (all of the latter were noncited articles) published in 2000, 2005, and 2010, and from these we analyzed 26,937 e-mail addresses. The results showed that approximately three fourths of these addresses were institutional, but there was an increasing trend toward using public e-mail addresses over the period studied. No significant differences were found between frequently and infrequently cited papers in this respect. Further research is now needed to access the motivations and perceptions of scholars when it comes to their use of either public or institutional e-mail accounts. © 2014 ASIS&T.

Warabieda W.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice
Horticultural Science | Year: 2015

The effect of two-spotted spider mite populations (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on the yield and growth parameters of the early-season apple cv. Katja was evaluated during a 3-year study. In the case of the colonisation of apple trees exceeding 1,462, 2,760 and 1,548 cumulative mite days (CMDs) in the subsequent years of research, a significant reduction of the cumulative yield (14 kg/tree) and of the cumulative trunk cross sectional area increase (5.7 cm2) was observed. No significant effect of spider mites on the average weight of the fruit was observed, while the pest affected fruit colouration. The calculated values of economic injury level were 60.5, 155.5 and 51.8 CMDs in subsequent years of the study, respectively. These values are much lower than the action threshold recommended in Poland and elaborated for the European red mite - Panonychus ulmi (Koch) on apple trees. The results suggest that the tolerance of early-season apple cultivars to T. urticae may be lower when compared to late-season varieties infested with P. ulmi; therefore, the decision to implement pest management for two-spotted spider mite should be taken at a lower infestation threshold than previously thought.

Sabat T.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice | Kaniszewski S.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice | Dysko J.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice
Journal of Elementology | Year: 2015

The hydroponic system is very often used for greenhouse vegetable production. The flood irrigation on a bench or on the flood floors is applied in the production of ornamental plants and vegetable transplants. This system is environmentally friendly, since fertigation is used in a closed system using the recirculation of nutrient solution. The aim of this study, conducted in 2010-2012, was to determine the effect of flood fertigation with different concentrations of nutrient solution (EC: 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0 mS cm-1) on the yield and quality of the butterhead lettuce cultivar Natalia grown in different substrates (coconut coir, peat and rockwool). The experiment was conducted in the spring and autumn cycle. The highest marketable yield at each concentration of the nutrient solution was achieved in the cultivation in rockwool, both within the spring and autumn. The highest nitrate content in lettuce in terms of both cultivation cycles was found in the lettuce grown in the nutrient solution concentration of EC 4 mS cm-1, and the lowest one was achieved in the nutrient solution concentration of EC 1.0 mS cm -1. Significantly less of nitrates was in lettuce grown in spring than in autumn. Higher levels of EC significantly increased the content of P and K in lettuce leaves during in both growing cycles, while the content of Ca and Mg was not significantly different. The applied substrates had a significant impact on the content of K, P, Ca and Mg in leaves of lettuce. The best concentration of the nutrient solution used for flood fertigation of greenhouse lettuce was EC 3.0 mS cm-1 for the spring cultivation and EC 4.0 mS cm-1 for the fall crop. © 2015, Polish Society Magnesium Research. All rights reserved.

The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of applying methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) and acibenzolar-S-methyl (BTH) to reduce the population of mites in apple orchards. The experiment was performed on apple trees cv. "Golden Delicious" grown in an orchard according to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) principles. The study showed that of the two elicitors, JA-Me restricted the population of the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi Koch) more strongly than BTH. Neither of these compounds significantly affected the size of the population of Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten-a beneficial predatory mite feeding on spider mites in apple orchards. The study also showed no adverse effects of these compounds on the yield and growth of apple trees, nor on their reproduction as measured by seed production. Studies indicate that the use of methyl jasmonate against spider mites on apple trees can complement the use of conventional acaricides as well as the introduction of predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae in the protection of apple orchards. © 2015 Taylor and Francis.

Mika A.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice | Buler Z.,Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Hortorum Cultus | Year: 2015

Dwarf and semidwarf apple trees planted at high density orchard are poorly illuminated when they come into full bearing. Insufficient illumination has adverse effect on apple red blush. Studies were carried out in years 2009–2013 in the Institute of Horticulture at Skierniewice. The object of the study were 12-year-old apple trees of ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Gala’. Trees were grafted on semi-dwarf M.26 rootstock, planted at 4 × 2 m, trained to the spindle system, had been pruned until the spring of 2009 by the renewal method. Prior to the trial the trees were 3 m of height and 2.5 m in spread. To improve fruit quality, additional four pruning treatments were applied in 2009–2013. They were: 1. Removing the lowest branches up to 1 m above the ground; 2. Heading annual shoots at the tree top and the base of the canopy; 3. Cutting out a slim waist in the middle part of the canopy; 4. Slimming the tree top; 5. Trees in the standard spindle form treated with renewal pruning served as the control. All the pruning systems ensured high yields. Only the pruning to a slim waist and slimming the tree top improved light penetration to the interior part of the tree canopy, fruit size and color. Pruning treatments slimming tree silhouette can solve the problem of poor quality apples in densely planted orchards. © by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Lublinie, Lublin 2015

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