Institute of Health Research

Madrid, Spain

Institute of Health Research

Madrid, Spain
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Lopez-Nieva P.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Lopez-Nieva P.,Institute of Health Research | Malave M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Malave M.,Institute of Health Research | And 13 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2016

Background: Radio-Adaptive Response (RAR) is a biological defense mechanism whereby exposure to low dose ionizing radiation (IR) mitigates the detrimental effects of high dose irradiation. RAR has been widely observed in vivo using as endpoint less induction of apoptosis. However, sex differences associated with RAR and variations between males and females on global gene expression influenced by RAR have not been still investigated. In addition, the response to radiation-induced apoptosis is associated with phosphorylation of TRP53 at both the serine 15 (ser-18 in the mouse) and serine 392 (ser-389 in mice) residues, but the role of these two phosphorylated forms in male and female RAR remains to be elucidated. Results: We analyzed the effect of administering priming low dose radiation (0.075 Gy of X-rays) prior to high dose radiation (1.75 Gy of γ-rays) on the level of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis and on global transcriptional expression in thymocytes of male and female mice. Here, we provide the first evidence of a differential sex effect of RAR on the reduction of thymocyte apoptosis with males showing lesser levels of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis than females. Analysis of transcriptomic profiles of 1944 genes involved in apoptosis signaling in radio-adapted thymocytes identified 17 transcripts exhibiting differential expression between both sexes. Among them, Dlc1 and Fis1 are closely related to the apoptosis mediated by the TRP53 protein. Our data demonstrate that overexpression of Dlc1 and Fis1 occur concomitantly with a highest accumulation of phosphoserine-18-TRP53 and caspase-3 in radio-adapted thymocytes of female mice. In an opposite way, both down-modulation of Fis1 and phosphoserine-389-TRP53 accumulation appear to be associated with protection from thymocyte apoptosis mediated by caspase-3 in males. Conclusions: Transcriptomic analysis performed in this work reveals for the first time sex-specific differences in gene expression influenced by RAR. Our results also suggest a sex-dependent dual role for phosphoserine-18-TRP53 and phosphoserine-389-TRP53 in the regulation of the radio-adaptive response in mouse thymocytes. © 2016 The Author(s).


Kuyken W.,University of Oxford | Warren F.C.,Institute of Health Research | Taylor R.S.,Institute of Health Research | Whalley B.,University of Plymouth | And 17 more authors.
JAMA Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Importance: Relapse prevention in recurrent depression is a significant public health problem, and antidepressants are the current first-line treatment approach. Identifying an equally efficacious nonpharmacological intervention would be an important development. Objective: To conduct ameta-analysis on individual patient data to examine the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) compared with usual care and other active treatments, including antidepressants, in treating those with recurrent depression. Data Sources: English-language studies published or accepted for publication in peer-reviewed journals identified from EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from the first available year to November 22, 2014. Searches were conducted from November 2010 to November 2014. Study Selection: Randomized trials of manualized MBCT for relapse prevention in recurrent depression in full or partial remission that compared MBCT with at least 1 non-MBCT treatment, including usual care. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Thiswas an update to a previous meta-analysis.We screened 2555 new records after removing duplicates. Abstracts were screened for full-text extraction (S.S.) and checked by another researcher (T.D.). There were no disagreements. Of the original 2555 studies, 766 were evaluated against full study inclusion criteria, and we acquired full text for 8. Of these, 4 studies were excluded, and the remaining 4 were combined with the 6 studies identified from the previous meta-analysis, yielding 10 studies for qualitative synthesis. Full patient data were not available for 1 of these studies, resulting in 9 studies with individual patient data, which were included in the quantitative synthesis. Results: Of the 1258 patients included, the mean (SD) age was 47.1 (11.9) years, and 944 (75.0%) were female. A 2-stage random effects approach showed that patients receiving MBCT had a reduced risk of depressive relapse within a 60-week follow-up period compared with those who did not receive MBCT (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95%CI, 0.58-0.82). Furthermore, comparisons with active treatments suggest a reduced risk of depressive relapse within a 60-week follow-up period (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.64-0.97). Using a 1-stage approach, sociodemographic (ie, age, sex, education, and relationship status) and psychiatric (ie, age at onset and number of previous episodes of depression) variables showed no statistically significant interaction with MBCT treatment. However, there was some evidence to suggest that a greater severity of depressive symptoms prior to treatment was associated with a larger effect of MBCT compared with other treatments. Conclusions and Relevance: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy appears efficacious as a treatment for relapse prevention for those with recurrent depression, particularly those with more pronounced residual symptoms. Recommendations are made concerning how future trials can address remaining uncertainties and improve the rigor of the field. Copyright 2016 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Toronto, University of Plymouth, Ghent University, Institute of Health Research and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JAMA psychiatry | Year: 2016

Relapse prevention in recurrent depression is a significant public health problem, and antidepressants are the current first-line treatment approach. Identifying an equally efficacious nonpharmacological intervention would be an important development.To conduct a meta-analysis on individual patient data to examine the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) compared with usual care and other active treatments, including antidepressants, in treating those with recurrent depression.English-language studies published or accepted for publication in peer-reviewed journals identified from EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from the first available year to November 22, 2014. Searches were conducted from November 2010 to November 2014.Randomized trials of manualized MBCT for relapse prevention in recurrent depression in full or partial remission that compared MBCT with at least 1 non-MBCT treatment, including usual care.This was an update to a previous meta-analysis. We screened 2555 new records after removing duplicates. Abstracts were screened for full-text extraction (S.S.) and checked by another researcher (T.D.). There were no disagreements. Of the original 2555 studies, 766 were evaluated against full study inclusion criteria, and we acquired full text for 8. Of these, 4 studies were excluded, and the remaining 4 were combined with the 6 studies identified from the previous meta-analysis, yielding 10 studies for qualitative synthesis. Full patient data were not available for 1 of these studies, resulting in 9 studies with individual patient data, which were included in the quantitative synthesis.Of the 1258 patients included, the mean (SD) age was 47.1 (11.9) years, and 944 (75.0%) were female. A 2-stage random effects approach showed that patients receiving MBCT had a reduced risk of depressive relapse within a 60-week follow-up period compared with those who did not receive MBCT (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.58-0.82). Furthermore, comparisons with active treatments suggest a reduced risk of depressive relapse within a 60-week follow-up period (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.97). Using a 1-stage approach, sociodemographic (ie, age, sex, education, and relationship status) and psychiatric (ie, age at onset and number of previous episodes of depression) variables showed no statistically significant interaction with MBCT treatment. However, there was some evidence to suggest that a greater severity of depressive symptoms prior to treatment was associated with a larger effect of MBCT compared with other treatments.Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy appears efficacious as a treatment for relapse prevention for those with recurrent depression, particularly those with more pronounced residual symptoms. Recommendations are made concerning how future trials can address remaining uncertainties and improve the rigor of the field.


Goodwin E.,University of Exeter | Goodwin E.,Institute of Health Research | Green C.,University of Exeter
Value in Health | Year: 2015

Background Increasingly, generic preference-based measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are used to estimate quality-adjusted life-years to inform resource allocation decisions. Evidence suggests that generic measures may not be appropriate for multiple sclerosis (MS). Objectives To report the first stage in the development of an MS-specific preference-based measure to quantify the impact of MS and its treatment: deriving a health state classification system, which is amenable to valuation, from the 29-item Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), a widely used patient-reported outcome measure in MS. Methods The dimensional structure of the MSIS-29 was determined using factor analysis and a conceptual framework of HRQOL in MS. Item performance was assessed, using Rasch analysis and psychometric criteria, to enable the selection of one item to represent each dimension of HRQOL covered by the MSIS-29. Analysis was undertaken using a sample (N = 529) from a longitudinal study of people with MS. Results were validated by repeating the analysis with a second sample (N = 528). Results Factor analysis confirmed the two-subscale structure of the MSIS-29. Both subscales covered several conceptually independent dimensions of HRQOL. Following Rasch and psychometric analysis, an eight-dimensional classification system named the MSIS-8D was developed. Each dimension was represented by one item with four response levels. Conclusions Combining factor analysis with conceptual mapping, and Rasch analysis with psychometric criteria, provides a valid method of constructing a classification system for an MS-specific preference-based measure. The next stage is to obtain preference weights so that the measure can be used in studies investigating MS.


Amouei A.,Babol University of Medical Sciences | Mahvi A.,Institute of Health Research | Naddafi K.,Institute of Health Research | Fahimi H.,University of Tehran | And 2 more authors.
Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

Background and Aim: In recent decade, phytoremediation technology is regarded very important because of its simplicity, inexpensiveness and use of natural resources and solar energy. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of remediation of contaminated soil with Lead and Cadmium by using native plants of Iran. We selected three native plants of Iran (Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus retoflexus and Zea maize) for this study. Extraction of soil and plant samples was performed by use of HNO3, HC1 and HNO3, HC1O4 and H2SO4 respectively. Concentrations of Lead and Cadmium in soil and plants were determined by Perkin-Elmer 603 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Lead concentration in the roots of plants (Alkaline soil) was more than those in their shoots. In acidic soil (with exception of Zea maize), concentration of Lead in the shoots was more than its concentration in the roots of the plants. Concentrations of lead in the roots and shoots of Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranths and Zea maize in alkaline soil were (54.5 and 25.5 mg/kg), (69 and 37.6mg/kg) and (47 and 32mg/kg) respectively, and its respective concentrations in acidic soil were (71.4 and 92.5 mg/kg), (89 and 120.5mg/kg) and (85 and 66.7 mg/kg). Cadmium concentrations in alkaline soil were (6.5 and 4mg/kg), (8 and 6.2 mg/kg) and (5.6 and 3.4 mg/kg) and in acidic soil were (5.8 and 4.5 mg/kg), (7.6 and 5.4mg/kg) and (6 and 4.8 mg/kg) respectively. Plants in group 3 produced less biomass than those in control group, group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Considering the increased rate of absorption of Lead and Cadmium and the amount of biomass produced by Zea maize and Amaranthus retoflexus in the acidic and alkaline soil, use of these native plants is recommended for refining the soil contaminated with heavy metals.


PubMed | Institute of Health Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied oral science : revista FOB | Year: 2011

Human HOX genes encode transcription factors that act as master regulators of embryonic development. They are important in several processes such as cellular morphogenesis and differentiation. The HOXB5 gene in particular has been reported in some types of neoplasm, but not in oral cancer.The present study investigated the expression of HOXB5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and in non-tumoral adjacent tissues, focusing on verifying its possible role as a broad tumor-associated gene and its association with histopathological and clinical (TNM) characteristics.RT-PCR was performed to amplify HOXB5 mRNA in 15 OSCCs and adjacent non-tumoral epithelium. A possible association with TNM and histopathologic data was verified by the chi-square and post-hoc t-test.HOXB5 was amplified in 60% non-tumoral epithelium and in 93.3% carcinomas. No statistically significant differences were found regarding the HOXB5 mRNA expression and TNM or histological grade.HOXB5 is expressed in OSCCs and its role in cancer progression should be further investigated.


PubMed | Institute of Health Research
Type: Case Reports | Journal: The Journal of oral implantology | Year: 2012

Peri-implantitis is a pathology that has been described in many clinical studies and case reports. However, it is still not clear how the roles of its etiologic agents work. This article is based on a review of the literature and a case report. It aims to offer data related to the factors that cause this pathology, and to analyze how these factors interact, leading to the contamination of the peri-implant tissue.

Loading Institute of Health Research collaborators
Loading Institute of Health Research collaborators