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Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Bustami J.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Sukiasyan A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Sukiasyan A.,Research Institute of Epidemiology | Kupcinskas J.,Lithuanian University of Health Sciences | And 7 more authors.
BMC Geriatrics

Background: The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) polymorphism I405V has been suggested to be involved in longevity and susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases. An enhanced reverse cholesterol transport due to enhanced HDL levels has been hypothesized to be the underlying mechanism. However, clinical trials with HDL-enhancing drugs failed to show beneficial effects. Consequently, it has been postulated that genetic variations enhancing HDL levels are cardioprotective only if they also decrease LDL levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to genotype 1028 healthy blood donors and 1517 clinically well characterized elderly for CETP I405V. Results: We could not find any association of this polymorphism with age for both, males or females, in any of these cohorts (P = 0.71 and P = 0.57, respectively, for males and P = 0.55 and P = 0.88, respectively, for females). In addition, no association with cardiovascular diseases could be observed in the elderly cohort (males OR = 1.12 and females OR = 0.88). In the same cohort, the CETP V405V genotype was associated with significantly enhanced HDL levels (P = 0.03), mostly owing to the female sex (P = 0.46 for males, P = 0.02 for females), whereas LDL and triglyceride levels were unchanged (P = 0.62 and P = 0.18, respectively). Conclusion: Our data support the recent hypothesis that variations enhancing HDL levels without affecting LDL levels are not associated with the risk for cardiovascular diseases. © 2016 The Author(s). Source

Viktorov A.V.,Research Institute of Epidemiology | Yurkiv V.A.,Research Institute of Epidemiology
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine

Colchicine and albendazole inhibited LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α and NO in a primary culture of rat Kupffer cells. Both agents potentiated the stimulating effect of this toxin on prostaglandin E 2 secretion. The amount of prostaglandin D 2 remained unchanged under these conditions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. Source

Tatochenko V.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Sidorenko S.,Federal Medico Biological Agency | Namazova-Baranova L.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Mayanskiy N.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | And 13 more authors.
Expert Review of Vaccines

WHO recommends the inclusion of PCVs in childhood vaccination programs world-wide. Many countries including the Russian Federation are currently planning the inclusion of PCVs in their National Immunization Programs and, therefore, data on the pneumococcal serotype distribution is important to estimate the potential disease impact. Here we review eight recent epidemiological studies on the pneumococcal serotype distribution from Russia. Across all studies, serotypes 6B, 14, 19F and 23F were the most prevalent. Interestingly, serotype 3 was relatively common. Serotype 19A was prevalent among AOM, CAP and nasopharyngeal isolates and among antibiotic resistant isolates in all age groups. The differences in serotype coverage between PCV10 and PCV13 were up to 26%. Based on the current data on serotype distribution, a wide use of PCVs in Russia may lead to a significant reduction of the pneumococcal disease burden. © Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Madiyarov R.S.,Research Institute of Epidemiology | Bektemirov A.M.,Research Institute of Epidemiology | Ibadova G.A.,Research Institute of Epidemiology | Abdukhalilova G.K.,Research Institute of Epidemiology | And 4 more authors.
Gut Pathogens

Background: Shigella is a frequent cause of bacterial dysentery in the developing world. Treatment with effective antibiotics is recommended for shigellosis, but options become limited due to globally emerging resistance. One of the mechanisms for the development of resistance utilizes integrons. This study described the antibiotic susceptibility and the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons in S. flexneri and S. sonnei isolated in Uzbekistan. Results: We studied 31 isolates of S. flexneri and 21 isolates of S. sonnei isolated in Uzbekistan between 1992 and 2007 for the susceptibility or resistance to ampicillin (Am), chloramphenicol (Cl), tetracycline (Te), co-trimoxazole (Sxt), kanamycin (Km), streptomycin (Str), gentamicin (Gm), cefazolin (Czn), cefoperazone (Cpr), cefuroxime (Cur), ceftazidime (Ctz), nalidixic acid (NA) and ciprofloxacin (Cip). Am/Str/Cl/Te and Am/Str/Cl/Te/Sxt resistance patterns were found most frequently in S. flexneri. Single isolates were resistant to aminoglycoside, quinolones and cephalosporins. The resistance patterns were different in the two species. Integrons were detected in 93.5% of S. flexneri (29/31) and 81.0% of S. sonnei (17/21) isolates. In addition, 61.3% of S. flexneri (19/31) isolates and 19.0% of S. sonnei (4/21) isolates carried both classes of integrons. In 29.0% of S. flexneri (9/31) isolates, only class 1 integrons were identified. In S. flexneri isolates, the presence of class 1 integrons was associated with resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Only Class 2 integrons were present in 61.9% of S. sonnei (13/21) isolates. Conclusions: Our study documents antibiotic resistance among Shigella spp. in Uzbekistan. Ninety percent of Shigella strains were resistant to previously used antibiotics. Differences among S. flexneri and S. sonnei isolates in patterns of antimicrobial resistance to routinely used shigellosis antibiotics were observed. The majority of S. flexneri were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and streptomycin. Class 1 and 2 integrons were widely present in these Shigella strains. Resistance to ampicillin/ chloramphenicol was associated with the presence of class 1 integrons. Though several mechanisms are possible, the resistance of Shigella isolates to ampicillin/chloramphenicol may be associated with the expression of genes within class 1 integrons. © 2010 Madiyarov et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Kondrashova N.M.,Vladivostok State Medical University | Plekhova N.G.,Research Institute of Epidemiology | Zavorueva D.V.,Vladivostok State Medical University | Somova L.M.,Research Institute of Epidemiology | And 2 more authors.

The community acquired pneumonia (CAP) falls into the category of the most frequent human diseases and is one of the leading causesof death from infectious diseases. The main components that characterize the inflammatory process in the lungs at CAP include an increase in vascular permeability, and migration of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages to the foci of infectious agents inoculation, and thereactivity of these cells defines the upshot of the disease. In the present work, a significant increase in the number of neutrophils and an increase in the number of perishing cells depending on the gravity of current CAP were determined. Herewith, the contents of necrotic neutrophils and macrophages in foci of inflammation dependent on the gravity of current CAP, while the difference between the factorsof apoptosis in these patients was not reliable. Apoptotic cell death was mainly revealed in population of macrophages. Analysis of thephagocytic and enzymatic activities of cells of the local defense ofCAP patients showed that the state of unspecific resistance of their organisms largely determined the severity of the disease and antibiotic treatment did not affect the normalization of neutrophils and macrophages functions. Source

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