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Shiratake K.,Nagoya University | Suzuki M.,Nagoya University | Suzuki M.,Research Institute of Environment
Breeding Science | Year: 2016

Recent advance of bioinformatics and analytical apparatuses such as next generation DNA sequencer (NGS) and mass spectrometer (MS) has brought a big wave of comprehensive study to biology. Comprehensive study targeting all genes, transcripts (RNAs), proteins, metabolites, hormones, ions or phenotypes is called genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, hormonomics, ionomics or phenomics, respectively. These omics are powerful approaches to identify key genes for important traits, to clarify events of physiological mechanisms and to reveal unknown metabolic pathways in crops. Recently, the use of omics approach has increased dramatically in fruit tree research. Although the most reported omics studies on fruit trees are transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and a few is reported on hormonomics and ionomics. In this article, we reviewed recent omics studies of major fruit trees, i.e. citrus, grapevine and rosaceae fruit trees. The effectiveness and prospects of omics in fruit tree research will as well be highlighted. © 2016, Japanese Society of Breeding. All rights reserved. Source

Kusakabe T.,Research Institute of Environment
Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi (Japanese Edition) | Year: 2011

Age and growth of robust tonguefish Cynoglossus robustus in Osaka Bay were studied. The technique of dyeing sectioned sagittal otoliths with methyl violet B showed distinct violet rings. These rings were confirmed to be annual and formed mainly from June to July, corresponding with the spawning season. Reading 784 specimens from 2000 to 2002, growth of the fish was expressed by von Bertalanffy's equation as TLt=352.9(1- e-0.703(t+0.528)) for males and TLt=406.6(1-e-0.638(t+0.422)) for females where TL is total length in mm and t is age in years. The females were larger than the males at each age. The total length of 1-year-old males and females reached 66% and 60% of their extremity length, suggesting the relatively fast growth of this species. The seasonal changes in the size composition of the fish caught by trawl net showed relatively large catches of low value small fish from April to September. It was suggested that postponing the start of fishing of this fish by 4-6 months could lead to a higher fishing income. Source

This is the first to elucidate the distribution and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from Kanzaki River, which is one of the most heavily polluted rivers in Japan. The World Health Organization (WHO)-toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) in waters from the mainstream exceeded the Japanese environmental standard (1.0 pg-TEQ/L). The PCDD/PCDFs were dominated by highly chlorinated DFs, which predominantly contributed to the WHO-TEQs, suggesting that the main causes would be the incineration-related wastes. To find the sources, the dioxin congener concentrations in water and sediment samples from its tributary small waterways were determined. Abnormally high WHO-TEQs were detected in a water (50 pg-TEQ/L) and a sediment sample (41,000 ng-TEQ/kg dry weight) near the industrial solid waste incinerators (ISWIs). The PCDD/PCDF characteristics agreed well with those of the incinerator-related wastes as seen in the mainstream. These facts indicate that the dioxin pollution in the mainstream could be largely related to the industrial wastes from the ISWIs. Here, a TEQ apportionment method was used to understand the contribution of the pyrogenic sources to the WHO-TEQs. The average contribution ratios of the pyrogenic sources to WHO-TEQs were more than 80% for river waters from the mainstream, indicating that the elevated WHO-TEQs in the mainstream had been largely caused by the ISWIs. © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Source

Two new species of the amphipod genus Leipsuropus Stebbing, 1899 are described. Leipsuropus astericolus sp. nov. was collected from the surface of a starfish in Japanese waters and L. hongi sp. nov. from the bottom in Korean waters. Both species have distinct projections on dorsal and lateral surfaces of head, pereonites 1-7 and pleonites 1, 2, and the projections were acute in L. astericolus and blunt in L. hongi. These new species are quite different from L. parasiticus (Haswell, 1879) in Australian waters which has only dorsal rugae on pereonites 1-5. They are also distinguishable from L. sinensis Ren, 2012 in Chinese waters in their sinuate palms of the male gnathopod 2. A key to species of the genus is provided. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press. Source

Hara A.,Nara University | Hamasaki K.,Nara University | Hamasaki K.,Research Institute of Environment | Yoshida K.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Yusa Y.,Nara University
Biological Invasions | Year: 2014

Loss of complex natural microhabitats due to human activity is a major cause of decreased biodiversity but its effects on biological invasion are not well understood. The effects of physical environmental factors, especially the type of agricultural canals, on the invasive freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied at 33 sites in the Chikugogawa River basin, Kyushu, Japan. Differences among sites in the local fauna and vegetation were also monitored. Structural equation modeling with a model selection procedure revealed that canals with a concrete lining had more snails. The effect was indirect in that the concrete lining reduced animal species richness and increased the invasive waterweed Egeria densa, which may serve as a refuge, protecting the snails from predation. A tethering experiment conducted simultaneously indicated high predation pressure on the snails: over 20 % of the tethered snails were lost within a day. Thus, human impacts may increase biological invasion by reducing biotic resistance and increasing the risk of invasional meltdown. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

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