Research Institute of Environment

Habikino, Japan

Research Institute of Environment

Habikino, Japan
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Kaneko S.,Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry | Kaneko S.,Research Institute of Environment
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2017

Serangium japonicum Chapin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) chiefly attacks whiteflies. This study monitored the adult occurrence of the ladybird and the citrus whitefly Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in citrus groves in central Japan using sticky traps, thereby examining temporal relationships in their abundance. Many S. japonicum adults were captured in a pesticide-free grove where D. citri adults were very abundant, with few adults in neighboring (organic, reduced pesticide, and conventional) groves harboring small numbers of D. citri. The whitefly adults exhibited a large peak in numbers in late May to early June. Two peaks of the ladybird adult numbers were detected in late May to early June and late June to mid-July, −6 to 7 days, and nearly 1 month after the peak in whitefly adult numbers, respectively. The ladybird adults found during the first peak period would be those that visited citrus trees mainly for oviposition, and the adults caught during the second peak period would be those that newly emerged after consuming immature whiteflies at the larval stage. Based on a yearly change in adult numbers in the pesticide-free grove, i.e., a large increase in S. japonicum numbers followed by a rapid decline in D. citri numbers, the ladybird’s role in controlling the whitefly is discussed. © 2017, The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.

Kai Y.,Kyoto University | Yamanaka T.,Research Institute of Environment
Marine Biodiversity | Year: 2017

Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA variations in the marine sculpin sister species Cottiusculus schmidti and C. nihonkaiensis, distributed along the Pacific coast of northern Japan and in the Sea of Japan, respectively, indicated a ca. 250-km-wide hybrid zone across the Tsugaru Strait, connecting the Pacific Ocean and Sea of Japan. In addition to incomplete postzygotic isolation between the two species, the hybrid zone may have been shaped and formed by reduced dispersal, the preferred habitat of Cottiusculus being generally deeper than Tsugaru Strait (maximum depth ca. 140 m). © 2017 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany

Kaneko S.,Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry | Kaneko S.,Research Institute of Environment
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2017

Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a ladybird native to Australia, preying on mealybugs and soft scales, and has been utilized worldwide as a biological control agent. It has long been recognized that C. montrouzieri that was introduced into the main island of Japan had failed to become established. The present study monitored yearly and seasonal occurrence of C. montrouzieri adults in citrus groves at Shizuoka Prefectural Fruit Tree Research Center in Shizuoka City, central Japan in 2008–2012 by using sticky traps and beating citrus trees. Adults of C. montrouzieri were continuously captured for 5 and 4 years in a pesticide-free citrus grove and a neighboring reduced-pesticide grove, respectively. Larvae of C. montrouzieri were observed consuming a cottony scale, Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell, on citrus trees. These results provide unequivocal evidence for the ladybird’s establishment in central Japan. The number of trapped ladybird adults exhibited four peaks a year: in mid-April, early to late June, mid-August, and late September to early October. Adult numbers in each grove varied largely across years, showing a great increase followed by a rapid decline during a period of 4 years. Factors affecting the seasonal/yearly occurrence of C. montrouzieri adults in citrus groves are discussed. © 2017, The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.

Two sediment passive samplers, polyethylene (PE) and polyoxymethylene (POM), were compared and mutually validated for measuring freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment porewater. PE and POM strips in commonly used dimensions (30 and 76 μm in thickness, respectively) were exposed to sediment slurries for 28 d. The Cfree values calculated using literature polymer-water partition coefficients were consistently higher for PE than for POM by a factor of 2 on average. Time series experiments over 96 d show that 28 d are sufficient for attaining partition equilibrium of PCBs for PE, whereas even 96 d may not be enough for POM. To gain additional insight, POM and PE strips were co-exposed to bovine serum albumin suspension spiked with PCBs. The POM/PE concentration ratios increased over 56 d, and the ratios at 28 d were in agreement with the POM-to-PE ratios of PCB concentrations from the 28-d sediment slurry experiments. This agreement suggests that the use of apparent POM-water partition coefficients (i.e., non-equilibrium concentration ratios) suitable for a 28-d exposure to sediment slurries may correct the non-attainment of equilibrium and could provide more accurate Cfree values. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Urabe M.,University of Shiga Prefecture | Ishibashi R.,Research Institute of Environment | Uehara K.,Research Institute of Environment
Parasitology International | Year: 2015

In 2009, a novel larval trematode of the family Gorgoderidae was found in the gonads of Nodularia douglasiae (Unionidae) from the lower reaches of the Yodo River, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. This is the first collection of trematodes in a unionid mussel in Japan. We investigated the morphology and life cycle of the trematode, and conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis with other gorgoderid species, both those collected in the Yodo River water system and those reported in the literature.Immature adult worms were obtained from the ureters of the common carp Cyprinus carpio, the first known instance of a gorgoderid from these fish in Japan. Morphological characteristics and molecular data show that it belongs to the subfamily Gorgoderinae (genus Phyllodistomum sensu lato). Regarding the morphology, first intermediate host, and the infection site of adult worms, it resembles Phyllodistomum elongatum Nybelin, 1926 from Europe, but no comparable molecular data exist for Ph. elongatum. Three cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes were detected in the specimens analyzed, suggesting that the present species is indigenous to the Yodo River water system. The 28S ribosomal DNA data showed that this species is a member of the clade consisting of Ph. cf. symmetorchis, Ph. folium, Pseudophyllodistomum and Xystretrum. However, its phylogenetic position within the clade differs between the maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony trees, and the sister species of the present species remain unclear. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

This is the first to elucidate the distribution and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from Kanzaki River, which is one of the most heavily polluted rivers in Japan. The World Health Organization (WHO)-toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) in waters from the mainstream exceeded the Japanese environmental standard (1.0 pg-TEQ/L). The PCDD/PCDFs were dominated by highly chlorinated DFs, which predominantly contributed to the WHO-TEQs, suggesting that the main causes would be the incineration-related wastes. To find the sources, the dioxin congener concentrations in water and sediment samples from its tributary small waterways were determined. Abnormally high WHO-TEQs were detected in a water (50 pg-TEQ/L) and a sediment sample (41,000 ng-TEQ/kg dry weight) near the industrial solid waste incinerators (ISWIs). The PCDD/PCDF characteristics agreed well with those of the incinerator-related wastes as seen in the mainstream. These facts indicate that the dioxin pollution in the mainstream could be largely related to the industrial wastes from the ISWIs. Here, a TEQ apportionment method was used to understand the contribution of the pyrogenic sources to the WHO-TEQs. The average contribution ratios of the pyrogenic sources to WHO-TEQs were more than 80% for river waters from the mainstream, indicating that the elevated WHO-TEQs in the mainstream had been largely caused by the ISWIs. © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Kusakabe T.,Research Institute of Environment
Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi (Japanese Edition) | Year: 2011

Age and growth of robust tonguefish Cynoglossus robustus in Osaka Bay were studied. The technique of dyeing sectioned sagittal otoliths with methyl violet B showed distinct violet rings. These rings were confirmed to be annual and formed mainly from June to July, corresponding with the spawning season. Reading 784 specimens from 2000 to 2002, growth of the fish was expressed by von Bertalanffy's equation as TLt=352.9(1- e-0.703(t+0.528)) for males and TLt=406.6(1-e-0.638(t+0.422)) for females where TL is total length in mm and t is age in years. The females were larger than the males at each age. The total length of 1-year-old males and females reached 66% and 60% of their extremity length, suggesting the relatively fast growth of this species. The seasonal changes in the size composition of the fish caught by trawl net showed relatively large catches of low value small fish from April to September. It was suggested that postponing the start of fishing of this fish by 4-6 months could lead to a higher fishing income.

Shiratake K.,Nagoya University | Suzuki M.,Nagoya University | Suzuki M.,Research Institute of Environment
Breeding Science | Year: 2016

Recent advance of bioinformatics and analytical apparatuses such as next generation DNA sequencer (NGS) and mass spectrometer (MS) has brought a big wave of comprehensive study to biology. Comprehensive study targeting all genes, transcripts (RNAs), proteins, metabolites, hormones, ions or phenotypes is called genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, hormonomics, ionomics or phenomics, respectively. These omics are powerful approaches to identify key genes for important traits, to clarify events of physiological mechanisms and to reveal unknown metabolic pathways in crops. Recently, the use of omics approach has increased dramatically in fruit tree research. Although the most reported omics studies on fruit trees are transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and a few is reported on hormonomics and ionomics. In this article, we reviewed recent omics studies of major fruit trees, i.e. citrus, grapevine and rosaceae fruit trees. The effectiveness and prospects of omics in fruit tree research will as well be highlighted. © 2016, Japanese Society of Breeding. All rights reserved.

Shibao M.,Research Institute of Environment | Tanaka H.,Research Institute of Environment
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2014

The attraction of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny, to two types of traps combined with a colored sticky board and an LED array was investigated in 2010 in an eggplant greenhouse. The colors of the sticky boards were blue, yellow and white, and the peak wavelengths of the LED arrays were 470 nm (blue) and 375 nm (ultraviolet). The "direct type" of traps was designed to directly illuminate the plants with an LED array and set along the upper edge of the board whose sticky surface was directed to the plants. In the" reflective type" of traps, the LED array was set close to the plants and directed toward the sticky boards. As a result, the number of adult thrips caught was significantly larger in the reflective type of trap with combination of the blue sticky board and the blue LED.

Morishita Jintan Co. and Research Institute Of Environment | Date: 2016-12-14

The present invention provides an orally administered agent for ruminants which reaches lower digestive tract without decomposition in the rumen by avoiding the destruction thereof due to rumination, and is disintegrated and dissolved in vivo. The present invention provides an orally administered agent for ruminants, of which the specific gravity is 1.17 to 2.00, the maximum particle size and minimum particle size are either within the range of 4 to 10 mm, and the breaking strength of a portion having the minimum particle size under body temperature environment of the ruminants is within the range of 0.5 to 5.0 N. The present invention further provides ruminant feed containing the orally administered agent and a method of orally administering a drug to ruminants.

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