Gong Z.,Hiroshima University |
Kawamura K.,Hiroshima University |
Ishikawa N.,University of Tsukuba |
Goto M.,Mie University |
And 4 more authors.
Solid Earth | Year: 2015
The Inner Mongolia grassland, one of the most important grazing regions in China, has long been threatened by land degradation and desertification, mainly due to overgrazing. To understand vegetation responses over the last decade, this study evaluated trends in vegetation cover and phenology dynamics in the Inner Mongolia grassland by applying a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series obtained by the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) during 2002-2014. The results showed that the cumulative annual NDVI increased to over 77.10 % in the permanent grassland region (2002-2014). The mean value of the total change showed that the start of season (SOS) date and the peak vegetation productivity date of the season (POS) had advanced by 5.79 and 2.43 days, respectively. The end of season (EOS) was delayed by 5.07 days. These changes lengthened the season by 10.86 days. Our results also confirmed that grassland changes are closely related to spring precipitation and increasing temperature at the early growing period because of global warming. Overall, productivity in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region tends to increase, but in some grassland areas with grazing, land degradation is ongoing. © 2015 Author(s).
DuPont W.,St. John's University |
Noy I.,Victoria University of Wellington |
Okuyama Y.,Yale University |
Sawada Y.,University of Tokyo |
Sawada Y.,Research Institute of economics
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
We quantify the 'permanent' socio-economic impacts of the Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) earthquake in 1995 by employing a large-scale panel dataset of 1,719 cities, towns, and wards from Japan over three decades. In order to estimate the counterfactual-i.e., the Kobe economy without the earthquake-we use the synthetic control method. Three important empirical patterns emerge: First, the population size and especially the average income level in Kobe have been lower than the counterfactual level without the earthquake for over fifteen years, indicating a permanent negative effect of the earthquake. Such a negative impact can be found especially in the central areas which are closer to the epicenter. Second, the surrounding areas experienced some positive permanent impacts in spite of shortrun negative effects of the earthquake. Much of this is associated with movement of people to East Kobe, and consequent movement of jobs to the metropolitan center of Osaka, that is located immediately to the East of Kobe. Third, the furthest areas in the vicinity of Kobe seem to have been insulated from the large direct and indirect impacts of the earthquake. Copyright: © 2015 duPont IV et al.
Yamauchi I.,Research Institute of economics |
Nagaoka S.,Hitotsubashi University
International Journal of Industrial Organization | Year: 2015
We investigate how a deferred patent examination system promotes ex-ante screening of patent applications, which reduces both the number of granted patents and the use of economic resources for examinations, without reducing the return from R&D. Based on a real option theory, we develop a model of examination request behaviors. Exploiting the responses of Japanese firms to recent policy reform, we find that the shortening of the allowable period for an examination request significantly increases both eventual and early requests, controlling for the blocking use of a pending patent application. This effect is stronger in technology areas with higher uncertainty. These results support the importance of uncertainty for an applicant and of ex-ante screening. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thorbecke W.,Research Institute of economics
Journal of Policy Modeling | Year: 2016
China's consumption imports per capita in 2012 equaled $36, much less than comparable countries' imports. This paper investigates the determinants of consumption imports. Evidence from panel dynamic ordinary least squares estimation and imports from 20 leading trading partners over the 1992-2012 period indicates that GDP growth and renminbi appreciation would cause large increases in China's consumption imports. Thus if policymakers continue fostering growth and development and continue allowing the renminbi to appreciate, they would enable Chinese consumers to purchase more medicine, food, and other goods from the rest of the world. © 2015 Society for Policy Modeling.