Research Institute of Child Nutrition

Dortmund, Germany

Research Institute of Child Nutrition

Dortmund, Germany
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Louie J.C.Y.,University of Sydney | Buyken A.E.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Brand-Miller J.C.,University of Sydney | Flood V.M.,University of Wollongong
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Low-glycemic index (low-GI) diets may be less nutritious because of limited food choices. Alternately, high-GI diets could be less healthful because of a higher intake of refined carbohydrate. Objective: The objective was to investigate the association between dietary GI, intakes of carbohydrates from high-GI (CHOhigh GI) and low-GI (CHO low GI) sources, and the risk of nutrient inadequacy in children and adolescents. Design: Children, aged 2-16 y, who provided 2 plausible 24-h recalls in a national survey were included (n = 4140). The ORs of not meeting the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results: Subjects with higher intakes of CHOhigh GI were found to be at risk of not meeting the NRVs for a wide range of nutrients, including calcium and iodine (both P-trend < 0.001). In comparison with subjects in the lowest quartile of CHOhigh GI, those in the highest quartile had 3 times (adjusted OR: 3.13; 95% CI: 2.47, 3.97; P-trend < 0.001) the risk of not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement for calcium. For iodine, the risk increased >5-fold (adjusted OR: 5.45; 95% CI: 3.97, 7.48; P-trend < 0.001). On the other hand, subjects with higher intakes of CHO low GI were less likely to meet Adequate Intakes of unsaturated fatty acids (all P-trend < 0.001), despite having lower risks of not meeting the NRVs for most nutrients. Conclusion: Children and adolescents who consume more CHOlow GIare more likely to meet most nutrient recommendations than those consuming higher GI diets. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Chun Yu Louie J.,University of Sydney | Buyken A.E.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Heyer K.,Bielefeld University | Flood V.M.,University of Sydney | Flood V.M.,University of Wollongong
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

There are no published data regarding the overall dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents. We therefore aim to describe the dietary GI and GL of participants of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS), and to identify the main foods contributing to their GL. Children, aged 2-16 years, who provided two 24 h recalls in the 2007ANCNPAS were included. A final dataset of 4184 participants was analysed. GI of each food item was assigned using a previously published method. GL was calculated, and food groups contributing to the GL were described by age group and sex. The weighted mean dietary GI and GL of the participants were 54 (sd 5) and 136 (sd 44), respectively. Among the nutrients examined, Ca had the highest inverse relationship with GI (P < 0·001), while percentage energy from starch was most positively associated with GI. The association between fibre density and GI was modest, and percentage energy from sugar had an inverse relationship with GI. Daily dietary GL contributed by energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor (EDNP) items in subjects aged 14-16 years was more than doubled that of subjects aged 2-3 years. To conclude, Australian children and adolescents were having a high-GI dietary pattern characterised by high-starchy food intake and low Ca intake. A significant proportion of their dietary GL was from EDNP foods. Efforts to reduce dietary GI and GL in children and adolescents should focus on energy-dense starchy foods. © Copyright © The Authors 2011.

Joslowski G.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Goletzke J.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Cheng G.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Gunther A.L.B.,FH Fulda | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2012

Background:Puberty is a so-called critical period for overweight development and is characterized by physiological insulin resistance during mid-puberty. This study addressed the hypothesis that habitual consumption of a diet inducing higher levels of postprandial glycemia or insulinemia during puberty may have an unfavorable effect on the body composition in young adulthood.Methods:Multivariate regression analysis was performed on 262 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study with at least two 3-day weighed dietary records during puberty (baseline: girls 914 years; boys 1015 years) and anthropometric measurements in young adulthood (1825 years). A published dietary glycemic index was assigned to each carbohydrate-containing food. Similarly, each food was assigned a food insulin index (insulinemic response to a 1 MJ portion of food relative to 1 MJ of glucose) using 121 values measured at Sydney University.Results:Dietary glycemic index or glycemic load during puberty was not related to body composition in young adulthood. In contrast, a higher dietary insulin index and a higher dietary insulin load during puberty were associated with higher levels of percentage of body fat (%BF) in young adulthood, even after adjustment for early life, socioeconomic and nutritional factors; %BF in energy-adjusted tertiles of dietary insulin index were 22.9 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 21.6, 24.1), 24.5 (23.2, 25.7), 24.7 (23.5, 25.9) %, P for trend 0.01; %BF in energy-adjusted tertiles of dietary insulin load were 22.8 (95% CI: 21.5, 24.0), 24.5 (23.2, 25.7), 24.8 (23.6, 26.0) %, P for trend 0.01. Adjustment for baseline %BF attenuated these relationships (P for trend 0.1 and0.08, respectively). Dietary insulin demand was not related to body mass index.Conclusion:This study suggests a prospective adverse influence of dietary insulin demand during puberty on %BF in young adulthood. Postprandial increases in insulinemia rather than increases in glycemia appear to be implicated in an unfavorable development of body composition. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Alexy U.,University of Bonn | Schwager V.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Kersting M.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

We examined the association between diet costs and diet quality in a sample of children and adolescents using data from the ongoing longitudinal (open cohort) DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) study. Children and adolescents aged 4-18 years (255 boys and 239 girls) provided 1100 yearly collected 3-day weighted dietary records. Linear mixed (effects) models were used to analyze the association between diet costs ([euro;[sol;day, estimated using retail food prices) and the Nutrient Quality Index (NQI) and the Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth (HuSKY). Analysis were stratified for low-quality records (scoremedian). No significant association was found in the low-quality records, whereas in the high-quality records the association was significantly positive for both scores (HuSKY P=0.016, NQI P<0.0001). In conclusion, a substantial part of our sample could increase their diet quality without a noteworthy increase of expenditure. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Kamrath C.,Justus Liebig University | Hochberg Z.,Meyer Childrens Hospital | Hartmann M.F.,Justus Liebig University | Remer T.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Wudy S.A.,Justus Liebig University
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Background: 17-Hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) can be converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) via an alternative "backdoor" route that bypasses the conventional intermediates androstenedione and testosterone. In this backdoor pathway, 17-OHP is converted to 5α-pregnane-3α, 17α-diol-20-one (pdiol), which is an excellent substrate for the 17,20 lyase activity of CYP17A1 to produce androsterone. Objective and Hypotheses: The objective of this study was to obtain evidence for the presence of the backdoor pathway in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). Methods: We compared urinary steroid hormone profiles determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of 142 untreated 21-OHD patients (age range, 1 d to25.4 yr; 51 males) with 138 control subjects. The activity of the backdoor pathway was assessed using the ratios of the urinary concentrations of pdiol to those of the metabolites of the classic Δ 4 and Δ 5 pathways. In contrast to etiocholanolone, which originates almost exclusively from the classic pathways, androsterone may be derived additionally from the backdoor pathway. Therefore, the androsterone to etiocholanolone ratio can be used as an indicator for the presence of the backdoor pathway. Results: Untreated 21-OHD subjects showed increased urinary ratios of pdiol to the Δ 4 and Δ 5 pathway metabolites and a higher androsterone to etiocholanolone ratio. Conclusions: The elevated ratios of pdiol to the Δ 4 and Δ 5 pathway metabolites as well as the higher androsterone to etiocholanolone ratio in patients with 21-OHD indicate postnatal activity of the backdoor pathway with maximum activity during early infancy. Our data provide new insights into the pathophysiology of androgen biosynthesis of 21-OHD. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.

Cheng G.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Cheng G.,University of Sichuan | Hilbig A.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Drossard C.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective To determine the relative validity of a 3 d estimated food record (EFR) used to assess energy and nutrient intakes in toddlers, using a 3 d weighed food record (WDR) as the reference method. Design Parents reported the food and beverage intakes of their children using an EFR concurrently with a WDR over three consecutive days. Estimation of mean differences, Spearman correlation coefficients, cross-classifications and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between the intakes of energy and fourteen nutrients obtained from the EFR and the WDR. Setting Data obtained from a representative sample of infants or toddlers in Germany. Subjects Sixty-seven toddlers aged 10-36 months who had completed an EFR for a 3 d recording period that corresponded to the WDR were included in the present analysis. Results Energy and nutrient intakes did not differ between the EFR and the WDR, except for linoleic acid and retinol. For all dietary intakes, Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the EFR and the WDR ranged from 0·35 to 0·80 (P ≤ 0·004). The proportion of participants correctly classified into quartiles ranged from 75 % for ascorbic acid intake to 96 % for Fe intake, and the percentage of misclassification was 9 % or less. The weighed κ values ranking the participants ranged from 0·23 for ascorbic acid intake to 0·59 for Fe intake. The Bland-Altman plots indicated a good agreement for all dietary intakes estimated from the EFR. Conclusions Our study suggests that this EFR is a valid assessment instrument for estimating the energy and nutrient intakes among toddlers at the group level. © The Authors 2012.

Buehlmeier J.,German Aerospace Center | Frings-Meuthen P.,German Aerospace Center | Remer T.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Maser-Gluth C.,University of Heidelberg | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

High sodium chloride (NaCl) intake can induce low-grade metabolic acidosis (LGMA) and may thus influence bone and protein metabolism. We hypothesized that oral potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) supplementation may compensate for NaCl-induced, LGMA-associated bone resorption and protein losses. Eight healthy male subjects participated in a randomized trial with a crossover design. Each of two study campaigns consisted of 5 d of dietary and environmental adaptation followed by 10 d of intervention and 1.5 d of recovery. In one study campaign, 90 mmol KHCO3/d were supplemented to counteract NaCl-induced LGMA, whereas the other campaign served as a control with only high NaCl intake. When KHCO3 was ingested during high NaCl intake, postprandial buffer capacity ([HCO3-]) increased (P = 0.002). Concomitantly, urinary excretion of free potentially bioactive glucocorticoids [urinary free cortisol (UFF) and urinary free cortisone (UFE)] was reduced by 14% [Σ(UFF,UFE); P =0.024]. Urinary excretion of calcium and bone resorption marker N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen was reduced by 12 and 8%, respectively (calcium, P = 0.047; N-terminal bone collagen telopeptide, P = 0.044). There was a trend of declining net protein catabolism when high NaCl was combined with KHCO3 (P = 0.052). We conclude that during high salt intake, the KHCO3-induced postprandial shift to a more alkaline state reduces metabolic stress. This leads to decreased bone resorption and protein degradation, which in turn might initiate an anticatabolic state for the musculoskeletal system in the long run. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.

Mussig K.,University of Tübingen | Remer T.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Maser-Gluth C.,University of Heidelberg
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Cortisol secretion and glucocorticoid excretion rates are regularly increased in obesity and associate with indices of body size and visceral adiposity. Different mechanisms may underlie the elevated urinary excretion rates of cortisol metabolites in obesity. In the present brief overview, potential mechanisms are discussed, paying special attention to cortisol metabolism. Besides, potential confounding factors in the evaluation of urinary glucocorticoid excretion are highlighted. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Hoffmann P.,Justus Liebig University | Hartmann M.F.,Justus Liebig University | Remer T.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Zimmer K.-P.,Justus Liebig University | Wudy S.A.,Justus Liebig University
Steroids | Year: 2010

Oestrogens, such as oestrone (E1), 17β-oestradiol (E 2), oestriol (E3) and their biologically active metabolites 2-methoxyoestrone (2-MeOE1), 2-hydroxyoestradiol (2-OHE2) 16-ketooestradiol (16-OE2), 16-epioestriol (16-epiE3), as well as testosterone (T) play an important role in physiological and pathological developmental processes during human development. We therefore aimed at developing an isotope dilution/bench top gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ID/GC-MS) method, based on benchtop GC-MS, for the simultaneous determination ('profiling') of the above analytes in children. The method consisted of equilibration of urine (5 ml) with a cocktail containing stable isotope-labelled analogues of the analytes as internal standards ([2,4-2H2]E1, [2,4,16,16- 2H4]E2, [2,4,17-2H 3]E3, [16,16,17-2H3]T, [1,4,16,16-2H4]2-MeOE1, [1,4,16,16,17- 2H5]2-OHE2, [2,4,15,15,17-2H 5]16-OE2 and [2,4-2H2]16-epiE 3). Then, solid-phase extraction (C18 cartridges), enzymatic hydrolysis (sulphatase from Helix pomatia (type H-1)), re-extraction, purification by anion exchange chromatography and derivatisation to trimethylsilyl ethers followed. The samples were analysed by GC-MS (Agilent GC 6890N/5975MSD; fused silica capillary column 25 m × 0.2 mm i.d., film 0.10 μm). Calibration plots were linear and showed excellent reproducibility with coefficients of determination (r2) between 0.999 and 1.000. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were <2.21% for all quantified metabolites. Sensitivity was highest for 2-OHE2 (0.25 pg per absolute injection: signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 3) and lowest for 16-epiE 3 (2 pg per absolute injection: S/N = 2.6), translating into corresponding urine sample analyte concentrations of 0.025 ng ml-1 and 0.2 ng ml-1, respectively. Accuracy - determined in a two-level spike experiment - showed relative errors ranging between 0.15% for 16-OE 2 and 11.63% for 2-OHE2. Chromatography showed clear peak shapes for the components analysed. In summary, we describe a practical, sensitive and specific ID/GC-MS assay capable of profiling the above-mentioned steroids in human urine from childhood onwards. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Alexy U.,University of Bonn | Freese J.,University of Bonn | Kersting M.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Clausen K.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Background/Aims: Data from the ongoing, open-cohort Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study were used to describe warm family lunch meals and the association of the lunch composition with total diet quality. Methods: 2,095 three-day weighed dietary records, collected between 2004 and 2009, from a 4-to 18-year-old DONALD study subgroup were used. Results: Warm lunch (eating occasions between 11.30 a.m. and 2.29 p.m. including at least one course that is typically consumed warm) was eaten on 68.8% of all record days. Meat lunch (>50%) was predominant, followed by vegetarian (25%), fish (13%) and sweet lunch meals (3%). The prevalence of desserts at lunch was high and beverages were drunk at 80% of lunch meals. A meat lunch was associated with a higher protein (+1.4% energy intake, %E) and fat intake (+1.7%E) than a sweet lunch; also densities of vitamin A, folate and iron were higher. A dessert at lunch decreased protein intake slightly (-0.2%E), but increased carbohydrate (+0.7%E) and added sugar intake (+1.4%E) as well as density of calcium (+18 mg/MJ). Conclusion: Our study proves the impact of lunch on daily dietary quality and yields valuable insights on the development of food and meal-based dietary guidelines. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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