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Park C.,Sogang University | Yun S.,Sogang University | Yun S.,Research Institute of Biotechnology | Lee S.Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The global pool of intracellular metabolites is a reflection of all the metabolic functions of an organism. In the absence of in situ methods capable of directly measuring metabolite pools, intracellular metabolite measurements need to be performed after an extraction procedure. In this study, we evaluated the optimization of technologies for generation of a global metabolomics profile for intracellular metabolites in Klebsiella oxytoca. Intracellular metabolites of K. oxytoca were extracted at the early stationary phase using six different common extraction procedures, including cold methanol, boiling ethanol, methanol/chloroform combinations, hot water, potassium hydroxide, and perchloric acid. The metabolites were subsequently collected for further analysis, and intracellular metabolite concentration profiles were generated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. During analysis, the stability of metabolites extracted using cold methanol was clearly higher than that obtained by other extraction methods. For the majority of metabolites, extracts generated in this manner exhibited the greatest recovery, with high reproducibility. Therefore, the use of cold ethanol was the best extraction method for attaining a metabolic profile. However, in another parallel extraction method, perchloric acid may also be required to maximize the range of metabolites recovered, particularly to extract glucose 1-phosphate and NADPH. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Park C.,Sogang University | Lu M.,Sogang University | Yun S.,Sogang University | Yun S.,Research Institute of Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2013

The efficiency of the bioconversion process and the achievable end-product concentration decides the economic feasibility of microbial 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) production. In 2,3-BDO production, optimization of culture condition is required for cell growth and metabolism. Also, the pH is an important factor that influences microbial performance. For different microorganisms and substrates, it has been shown that the distribution of the metabolites in 2,3-BDO fermentation is greatly affected by pH, and the optimum pH for 2,3-BDO production seems dependently linked to the particular strain and the substrate employed. Quantification analysis of intracellular metabolites and metabolic flux analysis (MFA) were used to investigate the effect of pH on the Klebsiella oxytoca producing 2,3-BDO and other organic acids. The main objectives of MFA are the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes and the identification of rate-limiting step and the key enzymes. This study was conducted under continuous aerobic conditions at different dilution rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 h-1) and different pH values (pH 5.5 and 7.0) for the steady-state experimental data. In order to obtain the flux distribution, the extracellular specific rates were calculated from the experimental data using the metabolic network model of K. oxytoca. Intracellular metabolite concentration profiles were generated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Sogang University and Research Institute of Biotechnology
Type: | Journal: Journal of biotechnology | Year: 2016

Methane is an abundant, inexpensive one-carbon feedstock and one of the most powerful greenhouse gases. Because it does not compete with food demand, it is considered a promising carbon feedstock for the production of valuable products using methanotrophic bacteria. Here, we isolated a novel methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomonas sp. SW1, from a sewage sample obtained from Wonju City Water Supply Drainage Center, Republic of Korea. The conditions for uracil production by Methylomonas sp. SW1, such as Cu


Maleev V.I.,RAS Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds | Skrupskaya T.V.,RAS Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds | Savel'eva T.F.,RAS Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds | Mkrtchyan A.F.,Research Institute of Biotechnology | Saghiyan A.S.,Research Institute of Biotechnology
Russian Chemical Bulletin | Year: 2010

A series of the anionic Co III complexes based on optically active amino acids containing the lithium cation in the external sphere of the complex was synthesized. The synthesized com- pounds were used as catalysts in the asymmetric addition of trimethylsilyl cyanide to aldehydes. The influence of the temperature, catalyst concentration, and modification of the chiral anion structure on the enantioselectivity of catalysis was studied. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.


Hong K.-K.,Chalmers University of Technology | Hong K.-K.,Research Institute of Biotechnology | Nielsen J.,Chalmers University of Technology | Nielsen J.,Technical University of Denmark
Metabolic Engineering | Year: 2013

Adaptive evolution offers many opportunities in metabolic engineering; however, several constraints still exist as evolutionary trade-offs may impose collateral cost to obtain new traits. The application of adaptive evolution for strains development could be further improved by elucidating the molecular mechanisms. In this study, adaptively evolved yeast mutants with improved galactose utilization ability showed impaired glucose utilization. The molecular genetic basis of this trade-off was investigated using a systems biology approach. Transcriptional and metabolic changes resulting from the improvement of galactose utilization were found maintained during growth on glucose. Moreover, glucose repression related genes showed conserved expression patterns during growth on both sugars. Mutations in the RAS2 gene that were identified as beneficial for galactose utilization in evolved mutants exhibited significant correlation with attenuation of glucose utilization. These results indicate that antagonistic pleiotropy is the dominant mechanism in the observed trade-off, and it is likely realized by changes in glucose signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Kim H.J.,Korea University | Lee E.J.,Korea University | Lee E.J.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Park J.-S.,Korea University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2016

The type II cohesin domain and type II dockerin of bacterial cellulosome were cloned from Clostridium thermocellum and expressed with the fusion of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein (TMVcp) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), respectively, in Escherichia coli. The TMVcp-cohesin fusion protein was assembled to the stable and rod-shaped nanostructure (TMVcp-Coh rod) under a particular buffer condition, where many active cohesin proteins are biologically and densely displayed around the 3-dimensional surface of TMVcp-Coh rod. Using EGFP-dockerin as a fluorescent reporter, we confirmed that the Ca2+-dependent binding and dissociation between native cohesin and dockerin were reproduced with the two recombinant fusion proteins, TMVcp-cohesin and EGFP-dockerin. The multi-cyclic binding-dissociation operation of TMVcp-Coh rod and EGFP-dockerin was successfully performed with maintaining the reversible cohesin-dockerin interaction in every cycle. EGFP that was fused to dockerin as a proof-of-concept here can be switched to other functional proteins/peptides that need to be used in multi-cyclic operation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Hong K.-K.,Chalmers University of Technology | Hong K.-K.,Research Institute of Biotechnology | Nielsen J.,Chalmers University of Technology
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2012

Metabolic engineering is the enabling science of development of efficient cell factories for the production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients through microbial fermentations. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key cell factory already used for the production of a wide range of industrial products, and here we review ongoing work, particularly in industry, on using this organism for the production of butanol, which can be used as biofuel, and isoprenoids, which can find a wide range of applications including as pharmaceuticals and as biodiesel. We also look into how engineering of yeast can lead to improved uptake of sugars that are present in biomass hydrolyzates, and hereby allow for utilization of biomass as feedstock in the production of fuels and chemicals employing S. cerevisiae. Finally, we discuss the perspectives of how technologies from systems biology and synthetic biology can be used to advance metabolic engineering of yeast. © 2012 Springer Basel AG.


Honga K.-K.,Chalmers University of Technology | Honga K.-K.,Research Institute of Biotechnology | Nielsen J.,Chalmers University of Technology | Nielsen J.,Technical University of Denmark
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

In a previous study, system level analysis of adaptively evolved yeast mutants showing improved galactose utilization revealed relevant mutations. The governing mutations were suggested to be in the Ras/PKA signaling pathway and ergosterol metabolism. Here, site-directed mutants having one of the mutations RAS2Lys77, RAS2Tyr112, and ERG5Pro370 were constructed and evaluated. The mutants were also combined with overexpression of PGM2, earlier proved as a beneficial target for galactose utilization. The constructed strains were analyzed for their gross phenotype, transcriptome and targeted metabolites, and the results were compared to those obtained from reference strains and the evolved strains. The RAS2Lys77 mutation resulted in the highest specific galactose uptake rate among all of the strains with an increased maximum specific growth rate on galactose. The RAS2Tyr112 mutation also improved the specific galactose uptake rate and also resulted in many transcriptional changes, including ergosterol metabolism. The ERG5Pro370 mutation only showed a small improvement, but when it was combined with PGM2 overexpression, the phenotype was almost the same as that of the evolved mutants. Combination of the RAS2 mutations with PGM2 overexpression also led to a complete recovery of the adaptive phenotype in galactose utilization. Recovery of the gross phenotype by the reconstructed mutants was achieved with much fewer changes in the genome and transcriptome than for the evolved mutants. Our study demonstrates how the identification of specific mutations by systems biology can direct new metabolic engineering strategies for improving galactose utilization by yeast. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


PubMed | Research Institute of Biotechnology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology | Year: 2014

There has been a significant global interest to produce bulk chemicals from renewable resources using engineered microorganisms. Large research programs have been launched by academia and industry towards this goal. Particularly, C4 chemicals such as succinic acid (SA) and 1,4-butanediol have been leading the path towards the commercialization of biobased technology with the effort of replacing chemical production. Here we present O-Succinyl-L-homoserine (SH) as a new, potentially important platform biochemical and demonstrate its central role as an intermediate in the production of SA, homoserine lactone (HSL), -butyrolactone (GBL) and its derivatives, and 1,4-butanediol (BDO). This technology encompasses (1) the genetic manipulation of Escherichia coli to produce SH with high productivity, (2) hydrolysis into SA and homoserine (HS) or homoserine lactone hydrochloride, and (3) chemical conversion of either HS or homoserine lactone HCL (HSLHCl) into drop-in chemicals in polymer industry. This production strategy with environmental benefits is discussed in the perspective of targeting of fermented product and a process direction compared to petroleum-based chemical conversion, which may reduce the overall manufacturing cost.


PubMed | RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk State University, RAS Semiconductor Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Calcium phosphate bions (CPB) are biomimetic mineralo-organic nanoparticles which represent a physiological mechanism regulating the function, transport and disposal of calcium and phosphorus in the human body. We hypothesised that CPB may be pathogenic entities and even a cause of cardiovascular calcification. Here we revealed that CPB isolated from calcified atherosclerotic plaques and artificially synthesised CPB are morphologically and chemically indistinguishable entities. Their formation is accelerated along with the increase in calcium salts-phosphates/serum concentration ratio. Experiments in vitro and in vivo showed that pathogenic effects of CPB are defined by apoptosis-mediated endothelial toxicity but not by direct tissue calcification or functional changes in anti-calcification proteins. Since the factors underlying the formation of CPB and their pathogenic mechanism closely resemble those responsible for atherosclerosis development, further research in this direction may help us to uncover triggers of this disease.

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