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Barkway C.P.,Royal Veterinary College | Pocock R.L.,Royal Veterinary College | Vrba V.,Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs | Blake D.P.,Royal Veterinary College
Journal of Visualized Experiments | Year: 2015

Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which cause the enteric disease coccidiosis, pose a serious threat to the production and welfare of chickens. In the absence of effective control clinical coccidiosis can be devastating. Resistance to the chemoprophylactics frequently used to control Eimeria is common and sub-clinical infection is widespread, influencing feed conversion ratios and susceptibility to other pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens. Despite the availability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tools, diagnosis of Eimeria infection still relies almost entirely on traditional approaches such as lesion scoring and oocyst morphology, but neither is straightforward. Limitations of the existing molecular tools include the requirement for specialist equipment and difficulties accessing DNA as template. In response a simple field DNA preparation protocol and a panel of species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been developed for the seven Eimeria recognised to infect the chicken. We now provide a detailed protocol describing the preparation of genomic DNA from intestinal tissue collected post-mortem, followed by setup and readout of the LAMP assays. Eimeria species-specific LAMP can be used to monitor parasite occurrence, assessing the efficacy of a farm’s anticoccidial strategy, and to diagnose sub-clinical infection or clinical disease with particular value when expert surveillance is unavailable. © JoVE 2006-2015. All Rights Reserved.

Mucksova J.,Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs | Kalina J.,Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs | Bakst M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Yan H.,HIAVS Hunan Institute of Animal and Veterinary Science | And 5 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2013

The identification, enrichment and subsequent isolation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are integral to the success of SCC transplants between fertile donor and sterilized recipient males. In birds generally and particularly in chicken, SSC-specific has yet to be identified. The receptor for glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), i.e. GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRα1), has been identified as a potential marker for different mouse spermatogonial subtypes. In the present study, we characterized the chicken cGFRα1 receptor and compared its predicted amino-acid sequence with mouse, rat and human GFRα1 proteins. Using specific polyclonal mouse anti-cGFRα1 serum, a total of 2.8% cells were recognized as cGFRα1-positive among isolated testicular cells recovered from sexually mature cockerels. The percentages of cGFRα1-positive testicular cells with haploid, diploid, tetraploid and SP DNA content were 1.6%, 2.5%, 39.3% and 76.8%, respectively. The presence of cGFRα1 protein on the surfaces of all cells of the seminiferous epithelium was confirmed by immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. Tissue specificity of cGFRα1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in adult testes compared to brain tissue which itself was several times higher than tissues prepared from the spleen, liver and heart. No expression was observed in muscular tissue. At last, we demonstrated the successful repopulation of sterilized recipient's testes with transplanted cGFRα1-positive donor testicular cells. Recipient males subsequently produced functional heterologous spermatozoa capable of fertilizing an ovum and obtaining chicks with donor cell genotypes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Benesova B.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Mucksova J.,Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs | Kalina J.,Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs | Trefil P.,Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs
British Poultry Science | Year: 2014

1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of frozen-thawed testicular cells transplanted into infertile cocks to restore spermatogenesis and to compare two cryoprotectants (CPA) (dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and Biofreeze).2. A total of 24 infertile White Leghorn (WL) cocks were transplanted with cryopreserved testicular cells from fertile adult donor cocks. Both genetically close and phylogenetically distant chicken breeds were used as donor cocks.3. Twelve out of 24 WL recipient cocks with cryopreserved testicular cells restored spermatogenesis within 2 months after the transplantation. Six out of 12 recipient cocks with restored spermatogenesis successfully produced progeny expressing the donor phenotype.4. There was no difference between the CPA in cell viability after thawing or in the number of offspring produced from cryopreserved testicular tissue.5. The present work represents the first report of production of a donor-derived healthy progeny following frozen-thawed testicular cell transplantation in adult birds. The described results may contribute to preservation of endangered avian species and to maintaining their genetic variability. © 2014, © 2014 British Poultry Science Ltd.

Vrba V.,Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs | Pakandl M.,Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2014

Coccidiosis is a disease caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria, which has a significant economic impact on poultry production. Multiple species infecting the turkey have been described; however, due to the general lack of unambiguous description, their identification and taxonomy is debatable. In this work, a systematic approach was taken to isolate, characterise and compare coccidian species in the turkey. Individual species were tracked according to their unique 18S ribosomal DNA sequence. The single-oocyst isolation technique and passaging of mixed species field isolates in selectively immunised birds enabled the derivation of pure species. Six distinct strains representing five eimerian species that infect the turkey were obtained. It appears highly probable that these species represent all species described in the past with the exception of Eimeria subrotunda. The species were analysed using both traditional methods and DNA sequencing. For each strain the oocyst morphology, prepatent period, gross pathology, pathogenicity, host specificity and endogenous cycle were studied. Antigenic similarity was investigated in multiple cross-immunity experiments. For identification and quantification of each individual species or strain, quantitative real-time PCR markers were also developed. Parallel characterisation of pure strains allowed comprehensive comparison with the original descriptions and assignment of correct species names. The species Eimeria meleagridis, Eimeria dispersa, Eimeria gallopavonis, Eimeria meleagrimitis and Eimeria innocua were identified. Comparison of our data with those of previous studies indicates that Eimeria adenoeides is most probably a synonym for either E. meleagridis or E. gallopavonis, or a description based on a mixture of these species, and thus nomen dubium. The species E. dispersa and E. innocua were also found to infect Bobwhite Quail. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) sequences showed that these two species form a distinct clade unrelated to other turkey coccidia and point to a polyphyletic origin of the species infecting the turkey. © 2014 The Authors.

Vrba V.,Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs | Pakandl M.,Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2015

Protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. These species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. Doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. The availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken Eimeria species along with the recently developed quantitative PCR identification of these species allowed to investigate the issue of host specificity using well-controlled cross-transmission experiments. Seven species of gallinaceous birds (. Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Numida meleagris and Colinus virginianus) were inoculated with six species and strains of turkey Eimeria and six species of chicken coccidia and production of oocysts was monitored. Turkey Eimeria species E. dispersa, E. innocua and E. meleagridis could complete their development in the hosts from different genera or even different families. Comparison of phylogenetic positions of these Eimeria species according to 18S rDNA and COI showed that the phylogeny cannot explain the observed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that the adaptation of Eimeria parasites to foreign hosts is possible and might play a significant role in the evolution and diversification of this genus. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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