Research Institute of Biomedical and Health science IUIBS

Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

Research Institute of Biomedical and Health science IUIBS

Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

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Buil-Cosiales P.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Buil-Cosiales P.,Navarra Institute Por Health Research | Toledo E.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Toledo E.,Navarra Institute Por Health Research | And 45 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2016

Prospective studies assessing the association between fibre intake or fibre-rich food consumption and the risk of CVD have often been limited by baseline assessment of diet. Thus far, no study has used yearly repeated measurements of dietary changes during follow-up. Moreover, previous studies included healthy and selected participants who did not represent subjects at high cardiovascular risk. We used yearly repeated measurements of diet to investigate the association between fibre intake and CVD in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. We followed-up 7216 men (55-80 years) and women (60-80 years) initially free of CVD for up to 7 years in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study (registered as ISRCTN35739639). A 137-item validated FFQ was repeated yearly to assess diet. The primary end point, confirmed by a blinded ad hoc Event Adjudication Committee, was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Time-dependent Cox's regression models were used to estimate the risk of CVD according to baseline dietary exposures and to their yearly updated changes. We found a significant inverse association for fibre (P for trend=0·020) and fruits (P for trend=0·024) in age-sex adjusted models, but the statistical significance was lost in fully adjusted models. However, we found a significant inverse association with CVD incidence for the sum of fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants who consumed in total nine or more servings/d of fruits plus vegetables had a hazard ratio 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·96) of CVD in comparison with those consuming <5 servings/d. Copyright © The Authors 2016.


Morales-Alamo D.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Morales-Alamo D.,Research Institute of Biomedical and Health science IUIBS | Losa-Reyna J.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Losa-Reyna J.,Research Institute of Biomedical and Health science IUIBS | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2015

At the end of an incremental exercise to exhaustion a large functional reserve remains in the muscles to generate power, even at levels far above the power output at which task failure occurs, regardless of the inspiratory O2 pressure during the incremental exercise. Exhaustion (task failure) is not due to lactate accumulation and the associated muscle acidification; neither the aerobic energy pathways nor the glycolysis are blocked at exhaustion. Muscle lactate accumulation may actually facilitate early recovery after exhaustive exercise even under ischaemic conditions. Although the maximal rate of ATP provision is markedly reduced at task failure, the resynthesis capacity remaining exceeds the rate of ATP consumption, indicating that task failure during an incremental exercise to exhaustion depends more on central than peripheral mechanisms. To determine the mechanisms causing task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE), sprint performance (10 s all-out isokinetic) and muscle metabolites were measured before (control) and immediately after IE in normoxia (PIO2: 143 mmHg) and hypoxia (PIO2: 73 mmHg) in 22 men (22 ± 3 years). After IE, subjects recovered for either 10 or 60 s, with open circulation or bilateral leg occlusion (300 mmHg) in random order. This was followed by a 10 s sprint with open circulation. Post-IE peak power output (Wpeak) was higher than the power output reached at exhaustion during IE (P < 0.05). After 10 and 60 s recovery in normoxia, Wpeak was reduced by 38 ± 9 and 22 ± 10% without occlusion, and 61 ± 8 and 47 ± 10% with occlusion (P < 0.05). Following 10 s occlusion, Wpeak was 20% higher in hypoxia than normoxia (P < 0.05), despite similar muscle lactate accumulation ([La]) and phosphocreatine and ATP reduction. Sprint performance and anaerobic ATP resynthesis were greater after 60 s compared with 10 s occlusions, despite the higher [La] and [H+] after 60 s compared with 10 s occlusion recovery (P < 0.05). The mean rate of ATP turnover during the 60 s occlusion was 0.180 ± 0.133 mmol (kg wet wt)-1 s-1, i.e. equivalent to 32% of leg peak O2 uptake (the energy expended by the ion pumps). A greater degree of recovery is achieved, however, without occlusion. In conclusion, during incremental exercise task failure is not due to metabolite accumulation or lack of energy resources. Anaerobic metabolism, despite the accumulation of lactate and H+, facilitates early recovery even in anoxia. This points to central mechanisms as the principal determinants of task failure both in normoxia and hypoxia, with lower peripheral contribution in hypoxia. © 2015 The Physiological Society.


Torres-Peralta R.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Torres-Peralta R.,Research Institute of Biomedical and Health science IUIBS | Morales-Alamo D.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Morales-Alamo D.,Research Institute of Biomedical and Health science IUIBS | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2016

To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 ± 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (-24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the recovery of EMGRMS and performance. The reduction of surface electromyogram MPF, MdPF and burst duration due to fatigue is associated but not caused by muscle acidification and lactate accumulation. Despite metaboreflex stimulation, muscle activation and power output recovers partly in ischemia indicating that metaboreflex activation has a minor impact on sprint performance. © 2016 Torres-Peralta, Morales-Alamo, González-Izal, Losa-Reyna, Pérez-Suárez, Izquierdo and Calbet.


PubMed | University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Research Institute of Biomedical and Health science IUIBS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of physiology | Year: 2015

To determine the mechanisms causing task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE), sprint performance (10 s all-out isokinetic) and muscle metabolites were measured before (control) and immediately after IE in normoxia (P(IO2) 143 mmHg) and hypoxia (P(IO2): 73 mmHg) in 22 men (22 3 years). After IE, subjects recovered for either 10 or 60 s, with open circulation or bilateral leg occlusion (300 mmHg) in random order. This was followed by a 10 s sprint with open circulation. Post-IE peak power output (W(peak)) was higher than the power output reached at exhaustion during IE (P < 0.05). After 10 and 60 s recovery in normoxia, W(peak) was reduced by 38 9 and 22 10% without occlusion, and 61 8 and 47 10% with occlusion (P < 0.05). Following 10 s occlusion, W(peak) was 20% higher in hypoxia than normoxia (P < 0.05), despite similar muscle lactate accumulation ([La]) and phosphocreatine and ATP reduction. Sprint performance and anaerobic ATP resynthesis were greater after 60 s compared with 10 s occlusions, despite the higher [La] and [H(+)] after 60 s compared with 10 s occlusion recovery (P < 0.05). The mean rate of ATP turnover during the 60 s occlusion was 0.180 0.133 mmol (kg wet wt)(-1) s(-1), i.e. equivalent to 32% of leg peak O2 uptake (the energy expended by the ion pumps). A greater degree of recovery is achieved, however, without occlusion. In conclusion, during incremental exercise task failure is not due to metabolite accumulation or lack of energy resources. Anaerobic metabolism, despite the accumulation of lactate and H(+), facilitates early recovery even in anoxia. This points to central mechanisms as the principal determinants of task failure both in normoxia and hypoxia, with lower peripheral contribution in hypoxia.

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