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Bukh J.D.,Copenhagen University | Bock C.,Copenhagen University | Vinberg M.,Copenhagen University | Werge T.,Research Institute of Biological Psychiatry | And 2 more authors.
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2010

Genetic polymorphisms seem to influence the response on antidepressant treatment and moderate the impact of stress on depression. The present study aimed to assess, whether allelic variants and stressful life events interact on the clinical outcome of depression. In a sample of 290 systematically recruited patients diagnosed with a single depressive episode according to ICD-10, we assessed the outcome of antidepressant treatment and the presence of stressful life events in a 6-month period preceding onset of depression by means of structured interviews. Further, we genotyped nine polymorphisms in the genes encoding the serotonin transporter, brain derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-. O-methyltransferase, angiotensin converting enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase, and the serotonin receptors 1A, 2A, and 2C. We found no evidence that the effects of the genetic polymorphisms on treatment outcome were dependent on stressful life events experienced by the individual prior to onset of depression. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. Source

Nexo B.A.,University of Aarhus | Christensen T.,University of Aarhus | Frederiksen J.,Glostrup Hospital | Moller-Larsen A.,University of Aarhus | And 24 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

We have investigated the role of human endogenous retroviruses in multiple sclerosis by analyzing the DNA of patients and controls in 4 cohorts for associations between multiple sclerosis and polymorphisms near viral restriction genes or near endogenous retroviral loci with one or more intact or almost-intact genes. We found that SNPs in the gene TRIM5 were inversely correlated with disease. Conversely, SNPs around one retroviral locus, HERV-Fc1, showed a highly significant association with disease. The latter association was limited to a narrow region that contains no other known genes. We conclude that HERV-Fc1 and TRIM5 play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. If these results are confirmed, they point to new modes of treatment for multiple sclerosis. © 2011 Nexø et al. Source

Kahler A.K.,University of Oslo | Otnaess M.K.,University of Oslo | Wirgenes K.V.,University of Oslo | Hansen T.,Research Institute of Biological Psychiatry | And 13 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics | Year: 2010

The phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), which is involved in cognitive function in animal models, is a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP). Variations in PDE4B have previously been associated with SZ, with a suggested gender-specific effect.Wehave genotyped and analyzed 40 and 72 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in SZ and BP multicenter samples, respectively, from the Scandinavian Collaboration on Psychiatric Etiology (SCOPE), involving 837 SZ cases and 1,473 controls plus 594 BP cases and 1,421 partly overlapping controls. Six and 16 tagSNPs were nominally associated (0.0005≤P≤0.05) with SZ and BP, respectively, in the combined samples or in gender-specific subgroups. None of these findings remained significant after correction for multiple testing. However, a number of tagSNPs found to be nominally associated with SZ and BP were located in a high LD region spanning the splice site of PDE4B3, an isoform with altered brain expression in BP patients. Four tagSNPs were associated with SZ in women, but none in men, in agreement with the previously reported gender-specific effect. Proxies of two nominally associated SNPs in the SZ sample were also associated with BP, but the genotypic effect (i.e., homozygosity for the minor allele), pointed in opposite directions. Finally, four SNPs were found to be associated with Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive symptom scores in a subgroup of SZ patients (n=153) or SZ female patients (n=70). Further studies are needed to evaluate the implicated PDE4B region of interest, for potential involvement in SZ and BP susceptibility. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Andersen M.B.,Research Institute of Biological Psychiatry | Croy C.H.,Eli Lilly and Company | Dencker D.,Copenhagen University | Werge T.,Research Institute of Biological Psychiatry | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4 -preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia. © 2015 Andersen et al. Source

Koefoed P.,Copenhagen University | Koefoed P.,Mental Health Center Copenhagen | Woldbye D.P.D.,Copenhagen University | Woldbye D.P.D.,Mental Health Center Copenhagen | And 26 more authors.
Acta Neuropsychiatrica | Year: 2012

Objective: There is clear evidence of a genetic component in major depression, and several studies indicate that neuropeptide Y (NPY) could play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease. A well-known polymorphism encoding the substitution of leucine to proline in the signal peptide sequence of NPY (Leu7Pro variation) was previously found to protect against depression. Our study aimed at replicating this association in a large Danish population with major depression. Method: Leu7Pro was studied in a sample of depressed patients and ethnically matched controls, as well as psychiatric disease controls with schizophrenia. Possible functional consequences of Leu7Pro were explored in vitro. Results: In contrast to previous studies, Pro7 appeared to be a risk allele for depression, being significantly more frequent in the depression sample (5.5%, n = 593; p = 0.009; odds ratio, OR: 1.46) as compared to ethnically matched controls (3.8%, n = 2912), while schizophrenia patients (4.1%, n = 503) did not differ. In vitro, the Pro7 substitution appeared to be associated with reduced levels of NPY without affecting its mRNA level. Conclusion: The Leu7Pro variation may increase the risk of major depression, possibly by affecting the biosynthesis of NPY. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

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