PubMed | Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Research Institute of Animal Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and Technological Institute of Epirus
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2017
An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM) and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM) in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control) was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP). The second group (Soy-Prot) was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w) and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME Proact per kg of feed. The third group (Gluten-Prot) was fed a diet without soybean-related constituents which was based on corn and CGM and with CP and protease contents identical to those of the diet of the Soy-Prot group. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal microbiota populations and morphology, meat quality and cost were evaluated. Furthermore, a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in order to assess the potential environmental performance of the systems defined by these three dietary treatments and identify their environmental hot-spots. The growth performance of the broilers supplied the Soy-Prot diet was similar to the broilers supplied the Control diet. However, the broilers which were fed the Gluten-Prot diet at the end of the trial showed a tendency (P0.010) for lower weight gain and feed intake compared to those of the Control diet. When compared to the Control group, lower counts of C. perfringens (P0.05) were detected in the ileum and cecum parts, and lower counts of F. necrophorum (P0.001) were detected in the cecum part of the birds from the Gluten-Prot group. The evaluation of intestinal morphometry showed that the villus height and crypt depth values were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the experimental groups for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum parts. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in the quality of the breast and thigh meat and in the feed cost per kg body weight gain for the total duration of the growth period between the Control and Gluten-Prot broiler groups. The LCA suggested that the ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions due to litter handling constitute the farm level hot-spots for the Acidification and Eutrophication Potentials of the Control and Soy-Prot systems and the Global Warming Potential of the Gluten-Prot system, respectively. The Latin American soybean production and domestic corn production and lignite mining are important off-farm polluting processes for the studied life cycles. The Soy-Prot and Gluten-Prot systems both performed better than the Control system in nine of Environmental Impact Category Indicators assessed, with the respective differences being generally larger for the Gluten-Prot system. The environmental impact estimates are regarded as initial, indicative figures due to their inherent uncertainty. Overall, the results could be considered as positive indications in the effort to sustainably replace the conventional, soybean-dependent control diet in the specific broiler production system.
Fakhraei J.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran |
Loutfollahian H.,Research Institute of Animal Science |
Shivazad M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran |
Shivazad M.,University of Tehran |
And 2 more authors.
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010
This experiment was conducted to study lysine requirement in broiler breeder hens. The treatments consist of 6 levels of lysine (0.50, 0.57, 0.64, 0.71, 0.78 and 0.85%) in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates and 8 hens in each pen, from 52 to 62 weeks of rearing period. The strain of hens was Arian. The first 3 weeks were considered as a period of depletion. The hens selected were of nearly the same body weight (3600±15 g) for maximum uniformity in treatments groups. Each pen was equipped with a four-hole nest, a tube feeder, and an automatic waterier. Amino acid profile and composition of feed ingredients were analyzed and results of them were used for diet formulation. The results showed that different levels of lysine had significant effects on egg production (%), egg mass (g/h/d), egg content (g) and settable egg (%) (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in double yolk eggs, small eggs, hatch of fertile eggs and chicks weight (P > 0.05). The broken-line model was used for determination of requirement. Broken-line regression analysis indicated that lysine requirement for egg production (%), egg mass (g/h/d), egg content (g) and settable egg (%) were 0.64, 0.67, 0.67 and 0.63%, respectively. Finally, the results indicated that lysine requirements for egg mass and content and also R2 were higher than determination of lysine requirements based on egg production and settable egg. © 2010 Academic Journals.
Dolezalova M.,Food Republic |
Molatova Z.,Food Republic |
Bunka F.,Food Republic |
Brezina P.,Food Republic |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Safety | Year: 2010
High attention is paid to the decontamination systems in an effort to prolong the shelf life of food products. The major factor determining shelf life is the rate of spoilage microorganism growth. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of organic substances (citric acid [CA], lactic acid [LA] and potassium sorbate [PS]) on chilled chicken skin microflora. Application of organic substances inhibited microbial growth and prolonged the shelf life of carcasses. Microbial reduction after application of organic acids was significant in case of 10% w/v CA and 2% v/v LA, and the most effective was combination of 2% v/v LA with 0.2% w/v PS. Sensory analysis found that application of 10% CA was not acceptable. However, chickens treated with the mixture showed better organoleptic properties than control. The use of food preservatives in combination may contribute to significant reductions of spoilage and pathogen microbes on poultry. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Lactic acid (LA), which is a naturally occurring compound in muscles, and potassium sorbate (PS), which is a well-known antifungal agent, are food additives generally recognized as safe for their intended use (when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice [Generally Recognized As Safe]). Application of LA in combination with PS significantly reduced amounts of bacteria and yeasts (both pathogenic or spoilage), and moreover, treatment does not influence the sensory quality of poultry. Therefore, this mixture is suitable for decontamination of chilled chicken, increases food safety and prolongs the shelf life of poultry products. © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Najafgholian J.,University of Tehran |
Pakdel A.,University of Tehran |
Thahmasbi G.,Research Institute of Animal science |
Nehzati G.,University of Tehran
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011
In the current study, the hygienic behaviors of 5th instar larva of Iranian honeybees (Apis mellifera. meda) were investigated. The results of hygienic evaluation demonstrated that 35% of Iranian honeybees are hygienic. For more research, different levels of hygienic behaviors were used as a treatment and then the selected 5th instar larva were transferred to fundamental colonies with 10 to 12% infestation. Three days later, the number of female Varroa in the capped cells were counted as attraction criteria for each treatment separately. The result demonstrated that hygienic colonies were fantastic because of their great interest for the least attraction. Moreover, the apparent correlation between resistant traits and performance traits exhibited that there are no significant relationship amongst resistance traits and performance traits. The relationship between uncapping and removing (which measured in the same recording day) was relatively high (>0.90). Furthermore, the correlation between hygienic behavior and attraction traits was negative so that the correlation between attraction and removing within 48 h after pouring liquid nitrogen was -0.86. The negative correlation between 2 major resistance traits (hygienic behavior and attraction traits) in the breeding stock deems that selection for resistance against Varroa mite and improved performance traits may be possible in the Iranian honeybees. Despite, it is believed that in the breeding stock for determining the best selection strategy, other resistant mechanisms must be evaluated. © 2011 Academic Journals.
Simeonov M.,Research Institute of Forage Crops |
Todorov N.,Trakia University |
Nedelkov K.,Trakia University |
Ribarski S.,Trakia University |
And 4 more authors.
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015
The objective of this study was to compare the growth rate, rumen development and some quality parameters of carcass and meat in lambs weaned at 25 and 70 days of age. The average live weight gain during experimental period was 268 g per day for suckling lambs and 233 g per day for lambs on dry feed. The difference of 13.1% in daily gain was not significant at P<0.05. The lambs weaned at 25 days of age showed tendency for higher dressing percentage and carcass weight, more separable internal fat, and better carcass fattiness (P>0.05), compared to those weaned at 70 days of age. Therefore it is possible to obtain approximately the same growth in live weight and carcass in lambs weaned at 25 and 70 days of age. The lambs weaned at 25 kg live weight had higher weight of internal organs than the lambs weaned at 70 days, but the difference was significant (P<0.05) only for lung liver, small intestine, thick intestine and rumen. The length and thickness of rumen papillae were higher in lambs weaned at 25 days of age compared to the lambs weaned at 70 days of age (P<0.05). Significantly thicker was the rumen wall in the lambs weaned at 25 days of age compared to the weaned at 70 days (P<0.05).