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Podkowka Z.,University Technologiczno Przyrodniczy Im iadeckich dgoszczy | Cermak B.,University of South Bohemia | Podkowka W.,University Technologiczno Przyrodniczy Im iadeckich dgoszczy | Broucek J.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra
Ekologia Bratislava | Year: 2015

Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG) which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce 'digestive gases', distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

Brestensky M.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Nitrayova S.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Patras P.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Heger J.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Nitray J.,Tekmar Slovakia Company Ltd Ltd.
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2016

In the present study it was evaluated the effect of the addition of linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut added to a high fat (HF) diet on the content of fatty acids (FAs) in musculuss longissimus dorsi (MLD) of pigs. A 5d with adaptation period was followed by a 70 d experimental period, during which the pigs were fed with a HF basal diet. The HF basal diet which served as a control (group CG) was supplemented either with linseed oil (group LG) or with inulin and horse chestnut (group IG). All of the pigs were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and samples of MLD were taken for FA analysis. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in MLD of the LG group was 58 % and 61 % higher (P<0.05) compared to CG and IG groups, respectively. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was 0.03 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 0.07 in LG treatment. These FAs were not detected in CG and IG. The ratio of MUFA and PUFA n-6/n-3 in the MLD was the lowest (P<0.05) in the LG (8.84) compared to CG (14.07) or IG (14.74) groups, representing a difference of 31.2%. The n-3/saturated FA ratio was highest (P<0.05) in LG group (0.04) when compared to CG and IG groups (0.02). The supplementation of linseed oil, into the HF diet resulted in a higher concentration of α-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA and lower ratio of n-6/n-3 FA in MLD. Inulin and horse chestnut had no effect on FA profile of MLD. © 2016, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved.

Broucek J.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Cermak B.,University of South Bohemia
Ekologia Bratislava | Year: 2015

This review is devoted to methodology that can help to assess emission of gases from poultry housings and could be used to expand the knowledge base of researchers, policymakers and farmers to maintain sustainable environment conditions for farming systems. Concentration and emission of ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide in poultry barns are discussed in this paper. Surveys of ammonia and greenhouse gases mean concentrations and emission factors in diferent poultry systems are showed. This paper is also gives the findings in emission mitigation, especially to different manure handling practices, management schemes, housing and facility designs for broilers and laying hens. Finally this paper focused on investigating practical means to reduce air emissions from animal production facilities.

Sistkova M.,University of South Bohemia | Broucek J.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Bartos P.,University of South Bohemia
Applied Engineering in Agriculture | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate a potential impact on the formation and propagation of sound from pig barns. We tested a hypothesis that the sound generated from pig housing would be influenced by the measuring distance from the barn (up to 11 m), time of day relative to feeding, building side direction, and season of year. The research was carried out in a barn for 1728 fattening pigs in the summer and winter. The measurements were made inside and outside the barn. The data were recorded before feeding (BF), during feeding (FE), and after feeding (AF). Sound levels were significantly influenced by the time of day (P<0.001) and measuring distance (P<0.001). The highest values were found inside the building at feeding time (71.95±1.41 dB). The impact of the building side direction on noise propagation through the wind was confirmed (P<0.001). The highest levels of sound were measured outside in direction to west and south sides in both, 7 m (49.40±3.79 dB, 47.58±4.31 dB), and 11 m (48.54±3.63 dB, 48.97±4.10 dB) distances. Sound levels during the summer were significantly higher (P<0.05) than during winter. The results indicated that sound emitted from the pig housing is dependent on the distance from the building, time of day, building side direction, and the season of year. In the surroundings of the building, the dependences of sound on wind direction were found. The results of this project are specific to the barn and environmental conditions under study, but they do provide insight into the relative importance of these factors for future studies. © 2016 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Sistkova M.,University of South Bohemia | Dolan A.,University of South Bohemia | Broucek J.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Bartos P.,University of South Bohemia
Archiv Tierzucht | Year: 2015

according to the time of day and the season. The measurements were performed in a building for 1150 fattening pigs with a slatted floor during summer and winter. The pigs (average weight 95 kg) were kept in pens under a batch management system. Nine places were the focus of sound intensity measurements (one inside the stable in section 7; eight places outside the building). The measurements were performed during three sets of 5 consecutive days in summer and three sets in winter. On each day the data were obtained during three 30 min periods (before feeding, during feeding and after feeding). The measurement was made inside and outside the building at the same time. The level of noise depends very significantly upon the period of measurement (before feeding, during feeding, after feeding). The following values were recorded inside (place 1): 65.5 ± 1.6 dB before feeding, 72.0 ± 1.4 dB during feeding and 63.4 ± 0.7 dB after feeding (P <0.001). The effect of seasonal noise levels can be seen only in outside measurements (P <0.05; P <0.01). The comparison of measurement place 1 (inside, pen with pigs) with the other places outdoors showed significant differences in both observed factors (P <0.001). We can conclude that the noise in the pig housing depends significantly on the time of day. The season influences the noise outside the building, in particular. © Author(s) 2015.

Makarevich A.V.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Stadnik L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Kubovicova E.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Hegedusova Z.,Institute for Cattle Breeding Ltd. Rapotin | And 4 more authors.
Zygote | Year: 2016

This study examined the impact of cow body condition on the quality of bovine preimplantation embryos. The embryos (n = 107) were flushed from dairy cows and classified according to a five-point scale body condition score (BCS2 n = 17; BCS3 n = 31; BCS4 n = 11) on the 7th day after insemination and then analyzed for development, dead cell index (DCI), cell number and actin cytoskeleton quality. The highest embryo recovery rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in the BCS3 group and the lowest in the BCS4 group. More transferable (morula, blastocyst) embryos were obtained from the BCS4 cows (79%), compared with the BCS2 (64%) or BCS3 (63%) animals. However, cell numbers were higher in the BCS2 and BCS3 groups (P < 0.05) compared with the BCS4 embryos. Conversely, the DCI was lowest in the BCS2 (3.88%; P < 0.05) and highest in the BCS4 (6.56%) embryos. The proportion of embryos with the best actin quality (grade I) was higher in the BCS2 and BCS3 cows compared with the BCS4 group. Almost 25% of all embryos showed fragmented morphology and a higher DCI (5.65%) than normal morulas (1.76%). More fragmented embryos were revealed in the BCS2 (28.6%) and BCS4 (31.25%) groups, and less (19.15%) in the BCS3 group. The cell numbers in such embryos were lower in the BCS4 (22.57) than in the BCS2 (46.25) or BCS3 (42.4) groups. In conclusion, the body condition of dairy cows affects the quality of preimplantation embryos. A BCS over 3.0 resulted in a higher incidence of poor (fragmented) embryos. © CopyrightCambridge University Press 2015.

Sirotkin A.V.,Constantine the Philosopher University | Sirotkin A.V.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Sirotkin A.V.,King Saud University | Kardosova D.,Constantine the Philosopher University | And 2 more authors.
Reproductive Biology | Year: 2015

The effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY; 0, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/mL) on the expression of PCNA, bax and p53 were examined by immunocytochemistry in porcine luteinized granulosa cells. NPY inhibited proliferation as well as promoted apoptosis and accumulation of p53 in the cells. This is the first report to demonstrate the direct action of NPY on ovarian cell proliferation and apoptosis. The results of the study suggest that the effect is mediated by transcription factor p53. © 2015 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn.

Broucek J.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Mihina S.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Mihina S.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Uhrincat M.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | And 2 more authors.
Italian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses that milk yield and behaviour at milking after relocation are impacted by gestation and lactation stages. Forty-one Holstein cows were relocated from the tie-stall barn with pipeline milking system into the barn with free-stall housing and herringbone milking parlour. Milk yield and order at the milking were recorded electronically. A significant decrease in daily milk yield was detected immediately after relocation (the first day) compared with the last day before treatment (23.76±7.21 kg vs 30.97±7.26 kg; P<0.001). However, the performance drop did not last long; after fourteen days milk production exceeded the mean original level (32.16±8.87 kg). No significant differences were found in the comparison of cows according to gestation stages. Cows in the second and first stages of lactation showed the highest declines in milk yield on the first day (36.77±6.34 kg and 33.76±7.44 kg vs 28.14±7.00 kg and 25.50±8.20 kg; P<0.05). Cows in the late lactation stage came into the parlour later than the other cows, equally during morning and evening milkings (P<0.05). Relationships between the lactation stage and milking orders were positive and significant (0.3730*, 0.3946*, 0.4822**). We found that milk yield and behaviour at milking after relocation were influenced by the stage of lactation of the cows; however, the gestation stage had little longterm effect on the variables measured. © J. Broucek et al., 2015.

Brestensky M.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Nitrayova S.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Patras P.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Heger J.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra
Journal of Central European Agriculture | Year: 2016

A total of 7 gilts (initial BW 50.5 ± 1.7 kg) fitted with a simple T-cannula in terminal part of ileum were used for the determination the effect of high ambient temperature on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) and nitrogen (N) and on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N and dry matter (DM). After the 5 d adaptation period two 14 d experimental periods followed. After the 1st 14 d period when the animals were housed at thermo-neutral (TN) temperature (20.6 ± 0.1 ºC), the 2nd 14 d period followed at high temperature (HT) (30.4 ± 0.4 ºC). On d 7 and 14 of each experimental period, two 24 h collections of ileal digesta and 2 collections of faeces were performed. The pigs were fed twice a day in two equal doses at a daily rate of 90 g*kg BW-0.75. The content of AA in samples of diets and ileal digesta was determined by an automatic amino acid analyzer (AAA 400, Ingos, Prague) after previous acid hydrolysis in 6M HCl with the exception of methionine and cysteine which were determined after oxidative hydrolysis. Water was offered ad libitum. The ATTD of N and DM at TN was 84.9 and 85.3%, respectively and the ATTD at HT was 84.7% and 86.5% for N and DM, respectively. Apparent ileal digestibility of AA and N were similar at both TN and HT ambient conditions. High ambient temperature had no adverse effect on ATTD of N and DM nor on the AID of N and AA in pigs. © 2016, University of Zagreb - Faculty of Agriculture. All rights reserved.

Brestensky M.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Nitrayova S.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Patras P.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra | Heger J.,Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra
Livestock Science | Year: 2014

Using 12 gilts (initial body weight: 38.4 ± 1.1 kg), we investigated an effect of early dietary amino acid (AA) restrictions on daily changes in urinary N excretion and growth performance during the following re-alimentation period. After the 10-d preliminary period of using a high-protein diet, we estimated protein deposition rate (PD) of pigs, two 14-d experimental periods followed. Pigs were allotted to 2 groups so as the mean PD of both groups was similar. During the first 14-d restriction period, the control group was fed an AA adequate diet, while the restricted group was fed an AA deficient diet. During the following 14-d re-alimentation period, both groups were fed AA adequate diet. Starting on d 12 of the restricted period, samples of urine were collected from both groups using permanent bladder catheters to monitor daily N excretion. Pigs were weighed weekly, the remaining feed were collected daily, and average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), gain:feed (G:F) were calculated for each period separately and overall for the restriction and re-alimentation periods. For the same periods, urinary N excretion rate was determined. During the re-alimentation period, pigs that were previously fed the AA deficient diet tended (P=0.060) to have greater ADFI (2297 vs. 2171. g/d), and greater (P<0.05) ADG (1216 vs. 827. g/d) and G:F (529 vs. 379. g/kg) than the control group. There were no differences in urinary N excretion between the restricted (20.8. g/d) and control (21.2. g/d) groups. During the overall period, lower (P<0.05) ADG (643 vs. 817. g/d) and G:F (294 vs. 381. g/kg) were observed in the restricted group compared with the control group. There was lower urinary N excretion in the restricted group in comparison to the control group as a result of early dietary AA restrictions. After early dietary AA restrictions, pigs demonstrated compensatory response in growth performance, but reduction in urinary N excretion was observed for only a short-term. During the overall period, including the restriction and re-alimentation period, compensatory growth was not observed, and lower urinary N excretion was resulted from early dietary AA restrictions. Compensatory response was not strong enough to offset the differences caused by severe early dietary AA restrictions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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