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Jirimutu,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Wang Z.,Shanghai Center for Bioinformation Technology | Wang Z.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Wang Z.,EG Technology | And 78 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

Bactrian camels serve as an important means of transportation in the cold desert regions of China and Mongolia. Here we present a 2.01 Gb draft genome sequence from both a wild and a domestic bactrian camel. We estimate the camel genome to be 2.38 Gb, containing 20,821 protein-coding genes. Our phylogenomics analysis reveals that camels shared common ancestors with other even-toed ungulates about 55-60 million years ago. Rapidly evolving genes in the camel lineage are significantly enriched in metabolic pathways, and these changes may underlie the insulin resistance typically observed in these animals. We estimate the genome-wide heterozygosity rates in both wild and domestic camels to be 1.0 × 10-3. However, genomic regions with significantly lower heterozygosity are found in the domestic camel, and olfactory receptors are enriched in these regions. Our comparative genomics analyses may also shed light on the genetic basis of the camel's remarkable salt tolerance and unusual immune system. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Sambuu R.,Yamaguchi University | Sambuu R.,Research Institute of Animal Husbandry | Takagi M.,Yamaguchi University | Takagi M.,Kagoshima University | And 10 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2013

The effects of in vitro exposure of porcine spermatozoa to zearalenone (ZEN) and α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) were studied by evaluating several parameters of an in vitro fertilization (IVF) system. For this purpose, boar spermatozoa cultured with semen storage medium containing 0 (control), 10 and 1000μg/L of ZEN and α-ZOL for 1week at 5°C were used for IVF of in vitro matured oocytes. Overall, there were no significant differences in the rates of total penetration, monospermic fertilization, and polyspermic fertilization of oocytes inseminated with spermatozoa from the different groups. Similarly, ZEN and α-ZOL at 10 and 1000μg/L did not have detrimental effects on the cleavage and development to blastocysts of oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Although the motility, viability, and plasma membrane integrity of spermatozoa significantly decreased after 3weeks of storage compared to non-stored spermatozoa (P<0.05), ZEN and α-ZOL at the evaluated concentrations did not exert detrimental effects on the above parameters, even after 3weeks of storage. These results indicate that prolonged exposure of boar spermatozoa to ZEN and α-ZOL up to 1000μg/L under reduced metabolic conditions does not affect their in vitro function. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Chang X.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Bao X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang S.,CAS Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research | Wang S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2015

Grassland degradation is a major issue in many parts of the world. Rehabilitation of areas that have been degraded by overgrazing can potentially accumulate soil carbon, but there have been few studies in the vast grasslands of Mongolia. Here, we calibrated and validated Century model with 618 measurements from a soil inventory covering four grassland types in a forest steppe region of Mongolia. Soil organic carbon (SOC) simulated by Century largely agreed with the observational dataset and the sign of SOC response to intensive grazing. We employed the calibrated model to assess SOC accumulation under reduced grazing intensity scenarios, and the projected accumulation rates were 22.0-36.9gCm-2yr-1 in the near term (2012-2035). These results imply that reducing the intensity of grazing may be an effective strategy for restoration of degraded grasslands, which can be implemented by reducing livestock numbers and/or by changing the timing and duration of grazing events. Moreover, the simulated SOC accumulation was mainly determined by a conceptual slow pool, which was not supported by experimental observations in similar soils. Therefore, evaluating the long-term climate mitigation through soil carbon accumulation in degraded grasslands still warrants further attention. © 2015 Z Published by Elsevier B.V.

Sambuu R.,Yamaguchi University | Sambuu R.,Research Institute of Animal Husbandry | Takagi M.,Kagoshima University | Shiga S.,Kagoshima University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2011

Zearalenone (ZEN) and its metabolites are important nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxins that cause reproductive disorders in domestic animals, especially pigs. We aimed to simultaneously detect ZEN and its metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) in porcine follicular fluid (FF) by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry. ZEN and α-ZOL, but not β-ZOL, were detected in all pooled FF samples collected from coexisting follicles (diameter ≥ 6 mm) within 10 ovaries. Furthermore, ZEN and α-ZOL were detected in samples pretreated with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase, but not in those left untreated, suggesting that the FF samples contained glucuronide-conjugated forms of the mycotoxins that may be less harmful to porcine oocytes due to glucuronidation affecting the receptor binding. Nonetheless, the effects of the glucuronide-conjugated forms should be studied, both in vitro and in vivo. © 2011 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.

Sambuu R.,Yamaguchi University | Sambuu R.,Research Institute of Animal Husbandry | Takagi M.,Kagoshima University | Namula Z.,Yamaguchi University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2011

The influence of acute exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) on porcine oocyte maturation, fertilization or sperm penetration ability during both in vitro maturation and fertilization was evaluated. First, oocytes were cultured in ZENcontaining (0-1000 μg/l) maturation medium and then fertilized. The oocytes maturing in vitro without ZEN were then fertilized in ZEN-containing fertilization medium. The maturation rates of oocytes and penetration ability of sperm decreased significantly in the presence of 1000 μg/1 of ZEN. However, neither increases in the rates of degeneration and DNA fragmentation of oocytes nor reductions in normal and polyspermic fertilization were observed. ZEN did not affect the sperm penetration rates; however, 1000 μg/l ZEN had positive effects on normal and polyspermic fertilization rates. Therefore, it can be suggested that an acute exposure of porcine oocytes during maturation and of oocytes and sperm during fertilization to ZEN up to 1000 μg/l may not affect the fertility of the oocytes. © 2011 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.

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