Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science

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Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science

science, South Korea
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Lee J.,Seoul National University | Choi H.L.,Seoul National University | Choi H.L.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

A well-managed chemical nitrogen (N) fertilization practice combined with treated swine slurry (TSS) is necessary to improve sustainability and N use efficiency in rice farming. However, little is known about the fate of N derived from chemical N fertilizer with and without TSS in paddy soil-plant systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the contribution of applied N fertilizer to N turnover in rice paddy soil with different N fertilization practices that were manipulated by the quantity of treated swine slurry and chemical N fertilizer (i.e., HTSS+LAS, a high amount of TSS with a low amount of ammonium sulfate; LTSS+HAS, a low amount of TSS with a high amount of ammonium sulfate; AS, ammonium sulfate with phosphorus and potassium; C, the control) and (2) to compare the rice response to applied N derived from each N fertilization practice. Rice biomass yield,15 N recovery in both rice grain and stems, soil total N (TN), soil inorganic N, and soil15 N recovery were analyzed. Similar amounts of15 N uptake by rice in the TSS+AS plots were obtained, indicating that the effects of the different quantities of TSS on chemical fertilizer N recovery in rice during the experimental period were not significant. The soil15 N recoveries of HTSS+LAS, LTSS+HAS, and AS in each soil layer were not significantly different. For the HTSS+LAS, LTSS+HAS and AS applications, total15 N recoveries were 42%, 43% and 54%, respectively. Because the effects of reducing the use of chemical N fertilizer were attributed to enhancing soil quality and cost-effectiveness, HTSS+LAS could be an appropriate N fertilization practice for improving the long-term sustainability of paddy soil-plant systems. However, N losses, especially through the coupled nitrification-denitrification process, can diminish the benefits that HTSS+LAS offers. © 2017 Lee, Choi. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Kim C.H.,Seoul National University | Abhari A.R.,Seoul National University | Jeong Y.B.,Seoul National University | Youn H.J.,Seoul National University | And 4 more authors.
Palpu Chongi Gisul/Journal of Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry | Year: 2017

Drying energy saving by reducing the steam consumption in the after-dryer section becomes more important for many grades of papers including linerboards because surface sizing gets more widely used for these grades. Drying energy demand in the after-dryer can be decreased by increasing the solids content of the sizing agent. This requires a new sizing agent or additive be developed that provide low in viscosity at higher solids content. A dextrin poly(acrylic acid) copolymer at a solids level of 52% was prepared and used as an additive for surface sizing with oxidized starch. The effect of the copolymer on viscosity, cooking property and retrogradation was examined using Brookfield viscometer and Brabender Viscograph. It was shown that use of the copolymer increased the solids content of sizing solutions and provided better cooking and storage properties. Starch graft copolymer could reduce the reassociation of starch molecules and hinder retrogradation after cooling and during the holding period.

Baik M.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science | Baik M.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Vu T.T.T.,Chonnam National University | Piao M.Y.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science | And 3 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

Epigenetic factors, such as DNA methylation status, may regulate adipogenesis and lipogenesis, thus affecting intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) of beef cattle. In Korean cattle steers, the LM consists mainly of muscle tissue. However, the LM tissue also contains IMF. We compared the gene expression levels between the IMF and muscle portions of the LM after tissue separation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the mRNA levels of both adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 1 (PPARG1) and lipogenic fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were higher (p<0.01) in the IMF than in the muscle portion of the LM. We determined DNA methylation levels of regulatory regions of the PPARG1 and FABP4 genes by pyrosequencing of genomic DNA. DNA methylation levels of two of three CpG sites in the PPARG1 gene promoter region were lower (p<0.05) in the IMF than in the muscle portion of the LM. DNA methylation levels of all five CpG sites from the FABP4 gene promoter region were also lower (p<0.001) in the IMF than in the muscle portion. Thus, mRNA levels of both PPARG1 and FABP4 genes were inversely correlated with DNA methylation levels in regulatory regions of CpG sites of the corresponding gene. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation status regulates tissue-specific expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the IMF and muscle portions of LM tissue in Korean cattle. Copyright © 2014 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.

Park C.-H.,Seoul National University | Lee S.-J.,Seoul National University | Lee T.-H.,Seoul National University | Kim H.-J.,Seoul National University | Kim H.-J.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science
Reactive and Functional Polymers | Year: 2016

Optically clear adhesive (OCA) is a key material for assembling a touch screen panels (TSP). TSPs are now applied to many devices; therefore, their preparation and adhesion performance examination including durability can be beneficial work. Cloud point resistance means that a material does not have a hazy appearance under any environment, especially under sudden temperature and humidity changes. It is a critical property for an OCA because it is directly related to image display on a TSP. A hydrophilic component needs to be incorporated to the OCA, and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) was selected as the monomeric hydrophilic component. The change in adhesion performance under hygrothermal aging conditions was investigated. The aging behavior was also monitored using infrared (IR) and Raman spectra and chemiluminescence (CL) analysis. The HEA-containing pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) exhibited a good cloud point resistance and adhesion performance along with stable adhesion properties during aging. This consequence is considered suitable behavior for the prepared PSA as an OCA. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jeong E.,Seoul National University | Shin S.,Seoul National University | Park M.,Seoul National University | Hyun J.,Seoul National University | Hyun J.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science
Palpu Chongi Gisul/Journal of Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry | Year: 2015

Natural cellulose hydrogel membrane cannot be directly used for cell encapsulation because it has many large pores on the surface that immune biomolecules are able to penetrate into easily. For the reason, alginate was used for the control of pore size of the cellulose hydrogel membrane. The surface morphology of cellulose/alginate nanocomposite confirmed the successful control of the porosity of the membrane. The permeability of the cellulose/alginate nanocomposite was decreased but mechanical properties were increased compared with the bacterial cellulose membrane. The cellulose/alginate nanocomposite could be used for the functional membrane as a promising biomedical material in the future.

Park C.-H.,Seoul National University | Lee S.-J.,Seoul National University | Lee T.-H.,Seoul National University | Kim H.-J.,Seoul National University | Kim H.-J.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives | Year: 2015

Optically clear adhesives (OCAs) are key components of touch screen panels (TSPs). It is important that OCAs do not affect the transparent electrodes in TSPs because OCAs are contacted to the transparent electrodes. Therefore, N-vinyl caprolactam (NVC) was incorporated in the composition of an acrylic pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) with excluding an acidic component to maintain the cohesion for OCA preparation. With increasing amounts of NVC, the tack and peel strength of UV-cured PSA increased, but high amounts of NVC led to decreased peel strength. The UV-cured PSA films were placed in a high temperature and humidity chamber for 8 weeks to investigate the durability and corrosion property under hygrothermal conditions. In this study, the corrosion test method using copper foil was suggested as a simple and economical method and was used to evaluate the effect of NVC on the corrosion property of PSA. This method helped identify suitable OCAs that do not have corrosive property. PSA films containing more than 20 wt% of NVC promoted the corrosion of copper foil under hygrothermal aging conditions. The caprolactam ring was opened by moisture, and the PSA structure morphed into a polar structure during the aging process. This change caused a glass transition shift, an increase in the storage modulus at the rubbery plateau, and an increase in peel strength. The surface free energy of the PSA films also increased due to the increase in the polar property. However, high amounts of NVC caused a decrease in the peel strength after 8 weeks of aging because of increased molecular interactions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jiang W.,Jilin University | Lee J.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science | Lee J.,Seoul National University | Jin Y.-M.,Seoul National University | And 12 more authors.
Molecules and Cells | Year: 2011

Seed germination capability of rice is one of the important traits in the production and storage of seeds. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seed germination capability in various storage periods was identified using two sets of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from crosses between Milyang 23 and Tong 88-7 (MT-RILs) and between Dasanbyeo and TR22183 (DT-RILs). A total of five and three main additive effects (QTLs) associated with seed germination capability were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. Among them, six QTLs were identified repeatedly in various seed storage periods designated as qMT-SGC5.1, qMT-SGC7.2, and qMT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 5, 7, and 9 in MT-RILs, and qDT-SGC2.1, qDT-SGC3.1, and qDT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 2, 3, and 9 in DT-RILs, respectively. The QTL on chromosome 9 was identified in both RIL populations under all three storage periods, explaining up to 40% of the phenotypic variation. Eight and eighteen pairs additive × additive epistatic effect (epistatic QTL) were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. In addition, several near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed to confirm six repeatable QTL effects using controlled deterioration test (CDT). The identified QTLs will be further studied to elucidate the mechanisms controlling seed germination capability, which have important implications for long-term seed storage.

Kwack Y.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science | Chun C.H.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science | Chun C.H.,Seoul National University
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Cucumber and paprika transplants were stored at 9, 12, 15, and 18°C under dark conditions for 15 days and then grown in a greenhouse for 14 days after transplanting. To determine the effects of low storage temperature and long-term continuous darkness on the quality and vigour of transplants, we investigated the quality of transplants during storage and the growth of stored transplants after transplanting. In cucumber transplants, decreasing storage temperature reduced stem elongation and decrease in SPAD value. The quality of cucumber transplants stored at 9°C was well preserved during storage, but they did not survive after transplanting due to chilling damage. Growth and development after transplanting were significantly greater when cucumber transplants were stored at 12°C. In paprika transplants, the quality of transplants did not significantly differ before and after storage. After transplanting, there was no significant difference in the survival rate and growth, but the number of flower buds was greater in the paprika transplants stored at lower temperatures (9 and 12°C). These results indicate that the responses of transplants to the conditions of low temperature and darkness differed between cucumber and paprika, and storage temperature in darkness must be controlled carefully considering species-specific responses to reduce quality deterioration during storage and improve the recovery of transplants after transplanting. © 2015 Korean Society for Horticultural Science.

Islam S.M.A.,Gyeongsang National University | Math R.K.,Gyeongsang National University | Cho K.M.,Korea University | Lim W.J.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Lactobacillus brevis WCP902 that is capable of biodegrading chlorpyrifos was isolated from kimchi. The opdB gene cloned from this strain revealed 825 bp, encoding 274 aa, and an enzyme molecular weight of about 27 kDa. OpdB contains the same Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly motif found in most bacterial and eukaryotic esterase, lipase, and serine hydrolases, yet it is a novel member of the GDSVG family of esterolytic enzymes. Its conserved serine residue, Ser82, is significantly involved with enzyme activity that may have application for removing some pesticides. Optimum organophosphorus hydrolase (OpdB) activity appeared at pH 6.0 and 35 °C and during degradation of chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, diazinon, methylparathion, and parathion. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Ha T.,Seoul National University | Lee I.-B.,Seoul National University | Lee I.-B.,Research Institute of Agriculture and Life science | Kwon K.-S.,Seoul National University | Hong S.-W.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research
International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering | Year: 2015

Abstract: Greenhouse Building Energy Simulation (BES) models were developed to estimate the energy load using TRNSYS (ver. 16, University of Wisconsin, USA), a commercial BES program. Validation was conducted based on data recorded during field experiments. The BES greenhouse modeling is reliable, as validation showed 5.2% and 5.5% compared with two field experiments, respectively. As the next step, the heating characteristics of the greenhouses were analyzed to predict the maximum and annual total heating loads based on the greenhouse types and target locations in the Republic of Korea using the validated greenhouse model. The BES-computed results indicated that the annual heating load was greatly affected by the local climate conditions of the target region. The annual heating load of greenhouses located in Chuncheon, the northernmost region, was 44.6% higher than greenhouses in Jeju, the southernmost area among the studied regions. The regression models for prediction of maximum heating load of Venlo type greenhouse and widespan type greenhouse were developed based on the BES computed results to easily predict maximum heating load at field and they explained nearly 95% and 80 % of the variance in the data set used, respectively, with the predictor variables. Then a BES model of geothermal energy system was additionally designed and incorporated into the BES greenhouse model. The feasibility of the geothermal energy system for greenhouse was estimated through economic analysis. © 2015, Int J Agric & Biol Eng. All rights reserved.

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